As an ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from Isodon eriocalyx var. Laxiflora, Eriocalyxin B (EriB) possesses potent bioactivity of antitumor and anti-autoimmune inflammation, which has been suggested to work through inhibition of NF-kappaB (NF-kappa B) signaling. However, the direct target of EriB remains elusive. In this study, we showed that EriB induced apoptosis is associated with the inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. With activity-based probe profiling, we identified p50 protein as the direct target of EriB. We showed that cysteine 62 is the critical residue of p50 for EriB binding through the alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones. As the result, EriB selectively blocks the binding between p50 and the response elements, whereas having no effect on the dimerization or the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. SiRNA mediated knockdown of p50 attenuated the apoptosis induced by EriB in SMMC-7721 cells. Taken together, our studies illustrated that EriB induces cancer cell apoptosis through interfering with the binding between NF-kappa B and the response elements by targeting the cysteine 62 of p50, which highlights its potential for the development of p50 targeted cancer therapeutic agents.