We provide a preliminary report of the mycobionts found within four Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) species from China: Monotropa uniflora, Hypopitys monotropa, Monotropastrum humile and Monotropastrum sciaphilum (a rare endemic species never previously studied for mycorrhizae). Such achlorophyllous Monotropoideae plants obtain their carbohydrates from mycorrhizal fungi linking them to surrounding trees, on which these fungi form ectomycorrhizae. Since Monotropoideae were rarely studied in continental Asia, the root systems of the four species sampled in Yunnan were examined using morphological and molecular methods. All the roots of these four species exhibit a typical monotropoid mycorrhizal morphology, including a fungal mantle, a Hartig net and hyphal pegs. In M. uniflora and M. humile mycorrhizae, cystidia typical of Russula symbionts covered the fungal mantle. ITS barcoding revealed that Russulales were the most frequent colonizers in all species, but Hypopitys monotropa displayed various additional mycorrhizal taxa. Moreover, a few additional ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic Basidiomycota taxa were identified in the three other species, challenging that these four Monotropoideae species are as strictly fungal specific as the other Monotropoideae species hitherto studied. Moreover, a comparison with accompanying fungus sporocarps revealed that the fruiting fungal community significantly differed from that associated with the Monotropoideae roots, so that a clear fungal preference was evident. Finally, four fungal species were found on more than one Monotropoideae species: this contrasted with previous reports of sympatrically growing mycoheterotrophic plants, which did not reveal any overlap. This again challenges the idea of strict fungal specificity.