Background and Aims Variation in the relative female and male reproductive success of flowering plants is widespread, despite the fundamental hermaphroditic condition of the majority of species. In many hermaphroditic populations, environmental conditions and their influence on development and size can influence the gender expression of individuals through the formation of hermaphroditic and unisexual flowers. This study investigates the hypothesis that the bulbous, animal-pollinated, perennial Lilium apertum (Liliaceae) exhibits a form of size-dependent gender modification known as gender diphasy, in which the sexual expression of individuals depends on their size, with plants often changing sex between seasons.
1.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, Key Lab Plant Biodivers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650204, Yunnan, Peoples R China 2.Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Menglun Town 666303, Yunnan, Peoples R China 3.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res Kunming, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China 4.Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada
Zhang,Zhi-Qiang;Zhu,Xing-Fu;Sun,Hang;Yang,Yong-Ping;Barrett,Spencer C. H..Size-dependent gender modification in Lilium apertum (Liliaceae): does this species exhibit gender diphasy?,ANNALS OF BOTANY,2014,114(3):441-453