密毛栝楼的民族植物学研究
许又凯
学位类型硕士
导师裴盛基
1992
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词密毛栝楼 西双版纳 食药兼用植物 人工栽培 药食同源 民族植物学 傣族 化学成分
摘要本文对西双版纳傣族传统利用的密毛栝楼进行了民间利用状况,生物学特性,生态学特性,人工栽培等方面的初步研究,对与其相混淆的植物种进行了订正;并分析了果实的营养成分。研究表明:1、傣族的民间利用:密毛栝楼为傣族民间习用的药食兼用植物,一般傣族村民每年均要食用一至两次密毛栝楼的果实,以预防和治疗疾病。密毛栝楼的根、茎、种子等主要为傣医用来治疗腹内肿块、疮疡、尿道结石等疾患。2、生态学特性:密毛栝楼是热带雨林中阳性上层藤本植物,一年中营养生长有两个明显的高峰期,其生长发育主要受温度、雨量、日照的综合调控。四月随雨量增加,温度升高,阳光充足,开始萌芽,五、六月和九、十月是一年中的两个生长高峰期,七、八月由于雨量太多,日照不足,虽然温度高,其生长减缓,十一月至一月随降雨减少而生长渐慢至完全停止生长,二至三月处于落叶休眠期。3、生物学特性:密毛栝楼为葫芦科多年生攀援大型草质藤本,主根不彭大,须根发达,茎依其形态可分为匍伏茎和攀援茎;匍伏茎沿地横走,叶小节间长,节上萌发许多须根;攀援茎叶大节间短。雌雄异株,雄花多数,开花时间短,易于脱落。4、人工栽培:种子在饱和含水量(51%)下能长时间(3-12个月)保持成活;影响种子发芽的主要原因是种皮坚硬限制了胚的萌动;当全剥除种皮或剥除三分之二以上种皮时种子易发芽。插条繁殖在一般条件下成活率低,主要是由于插条易于失水干枯。5、混淆种的订正:我们认为,《傣医传统方药志》等著作中记述的傣药“哈麻莫来”(hamamolai)不是卵叶栝楼Tricho santhes ovata Cogn,而是密毛栝楼Trichosanthes villosa Bl。6、化学成分分析:密毛栝楼鲜果各部分组成为:果皮占48.8%,果瓤占38.7%,可食部分(果皮和果瓤)占87.8%,种子占12.2%。果实含葡萄糖5.27%,果糖7.68%,蔗糖2.77%,可溶性总糖15.72%。含18种氨基酸,12种人体必需的矿物质元素,测定了果实中维生素C、B_1、B_2、的含量。果皮中含有一定量的生物碱,根、茎中含微量生物碱。
其他摘要The present paper deals with the traditional useful plant Trichosanthes villosa Bl., which distributes in Xishuangbanna S. W. China. Also the biological and ecological characteristics, cultivation experiment phytochemical tests and the verification of the species are achieved in the paper. The main research results are summaried as follows: 1. the traditional use: The ethnobotanical inventigation on T. villosa reveals that its fruit is traditionally used as food for promoting health and preventing diseases. The vine and seeds of T. villosa are used as decoction to treat boils and pyodermas gastritis, vomi-tig and sorethroat. For external use, a sap of its fresh vine and leaves canbe used for boils and pyodermas. 2. biological and ecological characteristics: T. villosa is perennial climibing herbaceous vine with a longth of several me-ters. According to its habitat, the stem can be divided tow types: one is creeping type and other is climbing one. It is dioecious and the flowering period lasts from June to October. T. villosa distributes under jungles trees in valleys, roadsides and on fences. There are two rapid growthing seasons in Xishuangbanna in a year. One is from May to June, the other is from September to October, 3. cultivation experiment: The result of cultivation experiment shows that the seeds of T. villosa can not germinate in the natural condition for their solid seed vessels. They can germinate after the solid seed vessels are shelled. The survival rate of cuttings is low because the waterin the cuttings will be lost easily. 4. phytochemical test: seventeen kinds of aminoacids, eleven kinds of mineral materials which are necessary to human body and several kinds of vitamines are found in the fruit of T. villosa Bl. Some alkaloid compounds are discovered in the fruit coats of T. villosa 5. Veri-fication: Trichosanthes ovata Cong. in Pharmacopoeia of Tradi tional Dai Medicine QWis actually Trichosanthes villosa Bl. based on the botanical verification.
页数52
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/944
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
许又凯. 密毛栝楼的民族植物学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,1992.
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