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题名: 山茶属古茶组的系统学研究
作者: 张文驹
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1992-08-15
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 闵天禄
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本文研究了山茶属古茶组(Sect. Archecamellia Sealy)的范围,指出Sealy的古茶组是一个自然类群,并将金花茶组(Sect. Chrysantha Chang)并入其中。初步订证古茶组共有16种,3变种,其中2个为新种。本文报告了1个种(C. albagigas Hu)的染色体数目2n=60,12个种及变种的核型,并指出古茶组都是2倍体(2n=30),相互之间核型比较接近,不对称性较低,除 C. nitidissima var. microcara Mo. et Huang外都是2A核型。通过对12个种及变种的种皮电镜扫描,发现种皮被毛是古茶组的普遍特征,而且发现种皮表面的雕纹有一定的分类意义。比较解剖了古茶组、离蕊茶组、实果茶组的36个种及变种的叶柄及叶片,发现叶柄维管束、叶肉栅细胞特征有一定的分类学意义。古茶组中子房5室的种,实果茶组及离蕊茶组的绝大多数种具有相似的叶柄维管束。本文还收集比较了古茶组、茶组、糙果茶组短柱茶组、红山茶组等的核型资料,并接合形态特征及同功酶资料指出山茶属的核型不对称性的变化符合 Stebbins 关于核型演化的一般理论,5个组的不对称变化如下:古茶组<糙果茶组,茶组,短柱茶组<红山茶组,其中古茶组对称性最小,从而进一步证实了古茶组的原始性,并根据核型演化趋势接合古茶组及邻近组的地理分布,赞同山茶组的起源中心在中南半岛,而且很可能在越南北部的热带山区的观点。
英文摘要: In this paper, taxonomic limits of Sect. Archecamellia Sealy has been studied and this section is regarded as a natural group. Sect. Chrysantha H. T. Chang is first time reduced and incorporated into Sect. Archecamellia. By the revision, 16 species and 3 varieties are confirmed in this genus and two new species are presented here. The chromosome number of one species and karyotypes of 12 species are studied. Among them 8 species belong to Sect. Arche-camellia and these all species are diploid (2n=30). Karyotypes of all species in this genus are similar each other, more chromosomes are metacentric and subterminal chromosomes are less. Karyotypes asymmetry is very low and all species belong to Stebbins 2A except C. petelotii var. microcarpa. The testa of this section is observed under SEM. It is found that testa of all species cothed with hairs, and sculpture of exine is of some value to divided species. Leaves of 31 species and varieties of Sect. Archecamellia, Corallina and Stereocarpus are studied. The Vascular bundle of petiole and cell of palisade parenchyma are some value to divided species. The species which both ends of vascular bundl turned into pith are often ovary with 5-loculor or hairs. The information of the karyotype in five sections (Sect. Archecamellia, Furfuracea, Paracamellia and Thea) are collected compared. Based on morphological characters, cytological and zymogramic date, it was exposed that evolutionary tendency of karyotype in the genus Camellia agreed with Stebbins theory. The varietion of karyotype asymmetry is Sect. Archecamellia < Sect. Furfuracea and Thea < Sect. Paracamellia < Sect. Camellia. The karyotype asymmetry of Sect. Archecamellia is the lowest in all sections and is a more primitive group in genus Camellia. According to evolutionary tendency of karyotype in genus Camellia and Distribution of Sect. Archecamellia s well as nearby groups, It is regarded that the genus Camellia might originated in Indo-China and neighboring regions.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/940
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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