勐宋哈尼族传统农业生态系统研究
许建初
学位类型硕士
导师裴盛基
1990
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
摘要热带传统农业生态系统随着人口的增长,社会工业化的发展,已面临着森林覆盖率下降。生物多样性减少、水土流失、土壤退化、气候变化等诸多问题。传统农业的发展不仅仅是农业问题或生态问题,而是一个人类生态学问题,逐及到人类社会和其自然系统更为复杂的相互作用。本文选择西双版纳勐宋哈尼族,运用人类生态学分析方法对其传统农业生态系统进行定点研究。初步调查了哈尼族杰维支系在勐宋地区的定居历史及哈尼族对当地自然环境的传统分类。特别从当地哈尼族社会文化背景和传统村社公有制管理等方面探讨了哈尼族 和其自然环境和相互作用相互适应的过程。勐宋哈尼族村社藤类保护林("Sangpabawa")正是这种作用的结果。村社藤类保护林保护了当地藤类资源的持续利用,也保护了由于山地轮歇农业带来的物种流失。哈尼族在勐宋定居二百多年来,已从单一的刀耕火种农业(Swidden Agriculture)演化为多样的轮歇农业(Agroforestry)。勐宋山地轮歇系统("Dongya")是个持久的系统,它不仅为哈尼族提供相当的粮食产量,而且是当地居民日常生活资料及经济收入的主要来源。同时也是哈尼族认识环境有用植物,驯化植物的场所。本文通过对生产力、稳定性、持久性、均衡性等农业生态系统特性的比较分析得出哈尼族对自然资源的传统村社管理及旱稻-藤、竹-森林合理的轮歇制度是当地传统农业生态系统稳定持久的主要原因。并提出了热带传统轮歇农业发展的方向。
其他摘要With the population increasing and industrialization, the rural tropical agroecosystem has faced these issues, including: decrease of forest coverage, low productivity, loss of bio-diversity, water and soil erosion, land degrationand climate change etc. The rural agricultural, development is not only a agricultural or ecological problem, but also a human ecological problem. It is about complicatedly interaction of human social system and their natural ecosystem. This paper selects the Mengsong area of Xishuangbanna as a case study, employs human ecology conceptual framework approach to analysis the rural Hani agroecosystem. Preliminarily investigation has been done on the history of the setting of the "jie wei" branch of Hani people in Mengsong and indigenous classification of local natural environment. Especially from the Hani cultural background and traditional communal management hierarchy to discuss about the interactional and adaptive procession between the Hani people and their environment, the emergence and development of Hani communal rattan protected forest is a result of this action. The rattan protected forest reserves for rattan resources sustainable utilization, and also conserves the lost germplasm because of the swidden agriculture. Since the Hani people settled in Mengsong two hundred years ago, the local agriculture has evolved from a swidden agriculture to various agroforstry. The Mengsong upland agroforstry ("Dongya") is a sustainable system, it provides not only a stable food yield, but also daily-life material and cash income mainly. It is also a place that the Hani people know the useful plants and domesticate the plants. By the analyzing the system properties such as: productivity, stability, sustainability, equability, etc. the Hani indigenous communal management of natural resources and upland rice-rattan-bamboo agroforestry are the causes as a sustainable agroecosystem. The development ways of the tropical rural agriculture is posed also.
页数52
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/926
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
许建初. 勐宋哈尼族传统农业生态系统研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,1990.
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