中国野生(珍稀濒危)植物保护-豹子花属研究
谢晓阳
学位类型硕士
导师武全安
1990
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
摘要本文对百合科豹子花属从种质资源保护和细胞学等方面进行了研究。豹子花属是青藏高原东南缘的一个特有属,该属植物生长在2800-4200米的高山,在自然条件下可通过种子和鳞茎正常繁殖。但是由于人为因素对它们生存环境的干挠和破坏,现在有一些种已处于稀有状态。将本属中一些种的鳞茎引种到海拔1900米的昆明植物研究所栽培一年,虽然它们可以开花,但是生长发育过快,营养生长和生殖生长重叠期长,开花期比在原产地高黎贡山(3200米)提早60天。它们于5月份开花后因不适应昆明温暖的气候,植物因呼吸代谢过旺而迅速表现早衰,所以未能结实。由于营养生长不充分。鳞茎经过一季生长后缩小。这必将影响到第二年的生长。在目前尚未研究成功在中低海拔进行人工繁殖保护的情况下,它们应当在自然保护区得到保护。细胞学研究结果表明,豹子花属的核形态同百合属的最相似。两属植物的静止核形态均属于复杂染色中心微粒型,分裂前期染色体态均属于中间型,反映出它们是分化旺盛的类群。核型基本组成为2n = 24 = 4m (2m + 2sm) + 8st + 12t,染色体着丝点端化值为79.9-82%,表明两个属高度的相似性。豹子花属6种1变型的核型没有明显的变异,表明这些种之间非常紧密的联系。
其他摘要The studies on the germplasm resouce conservation and chromosomal evolution concerning the Genus Nomocharis Franch. were made in this thesis. The Genus endemic to the south-eastern flank of Himalayas occures in north-west Yunnan primarily. The species are famous to world gardens for the charming flowers of them and nearly all have been growers in western gardens early or late since 1910, however, none has found its way into Chines gardens yet because the species are denizens in the high mountains not adapting themselves to the warm climate of the lower altitute area. In addition, although the species are able to propagate through seeds and young bulbs under natural conditions, some of them are in the rare situation in the N·W·Yunnan now, it is due to the deteriorated environment caused by humen action. In order to seek the posibility of carrying out conservation for them by means of garden, a few bulbs of the species, N. pardanthina and N. aperta, were collected from the Gaoligong - shan mountains (3200m ·altitude) and introduced into cultivation in Kunming botanical garden (1900m·altitude). Having grown for one season, the cultivated plants were able to flower but they were unable to fruit maturely. the bulbs sprouted at the end of March, the plants were blooming in the first ten days of May going earlier about 60 days than blooming in the high mountains, this followed the decrease of vegetation that the plants became shorter and smaller than they used to be. The case was caused by the high mean air tamperature of 16-19c from April to June that brought about the plants being in the fast process of respiration so the net-photosynthesis decreased. After the flowers withered, the leaves became yellower and yellower day after day so the developing fruits were wanting in the supplies of photosynthate and withered too. The same case happened to the bulbs that they had nurtured the growth of the plants in the season while few supplies were replenished to them so they became feebler, their growth in the coming year will be impacted. Seeing that it is difficult to cultivate those High mountains habitats plants in gardens where the air taperrature are higher. There is no more economical and effectural way to take the conservation for the species than the nature reserve. Five species and one forma of the Genus Nomocharis and seven species of the Genera Lilium, Frtillaria and cardiocrinum all in the Gaoligongshan mountains were karyomor-phologically investigated. The results are presented as follows: 1) Four Genera are similary in somatic cells with the complex chromocenter type of the resting nuclei and the interstital type of the prophase chromosomes. 2) Four Genera are similary in karyotypes, among them the genus Nomocharis is closely related to the Genus Lilium by first m-chromosomes which has a seconderay constriction on its short arm approaching the centromere. 3) No evident variation of the karyo-types were found in five species and one forma of the Genus Nomocharis, it indicates that those taxon are closely relative. The chromosomes complements firstly reported among the species of four Genera are listed in the tables of chapter 4.
页数63
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/904
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
谢晓阳. 中国野生(珍稀濒危)植物保护-豹子花属研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,1990.
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