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题名: 西双版纳勐仑地区高等真菌的分类与区系地理研究
作者: 杨祝良
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1990
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 臧穆
中文摘要: 勐仑位于滇南西双版纳傣族自治州的近中东部。地处北纬21°57',东101°25'。这里属温暖、干湿季分明的西部型季风北热带半湿润气候,发育有多种热带植被及常绿阔叶林植被,其中蕴藏着丰富的真菌资源。在前人研究的基础上,作者于1988年8月、1989年10月中旬至11月中旬两度对该地区的高等真菌作了野外考察,共采得标本780号,经鉴定约130属、300种,本文记载111属250种(含冤个近来其他学者发表的而本次未采到的标本的新种),其中2属36种1变种为我国的新记录,如扁枝瑚菌Scytinopogon pallescens (Bres) Singer、褐顶托柄茹Clarkeinda trachodes (Berk) Singer、蚂蚁谷堆鸡菌Termitomyces heimii Natarajan、黑柄翼孢菌Pterospora nigripes (Schw.) Horak、硬蜡伞Hygrophorus firmus Berk.et Br.、东京胶孔菌Favolaschia tonkinensis (Pat) Singer、小伞状丝牛肝菌Filoboletus mycenoides Henn、瘤鳞环柄菇Lepiota phlyctaenodes (Berk.et Br.) Sace、刺褶小皮伞Marasmius setulosifolius Singer ex Singer、皱波斜盖伞Clitopilus crispus pat、竹林枝瑚菌Ramaria capucina (pat.) Petersen等等。 全文主要参照Ainsworth等(1973)的系统,稍作改动。勐仑地区的高等真菌现知以耐烦角菌科xylariaceae、肉杯菌科Sarcosyphaceae、木耳科Auriculariaceae、花耳科Dacrymycetaceae、珊瑚菌科Clavariaceae、柄杯菌科Podoscyphaceae、灵芝科Ganodermataceae、鹅膏科Amanitaceae (Sensu lato)、口蘑科Tricholomataceae及鬼笔科Phallaceae的某些属为主要组成,地理分布研究表明该区高等真菌区系与世界热带、温带的区系有着广泛的联系,区系成分具有明显的热带性质(占总属数的67.3%,总种数的62.6%,世界分布者除外,下同),也有相当比重的温带成分(占总属数的32.7%,总种数的32.3%)和一定数量的特有种。其分布类型可分为11 类,从地理分布推测,某些属种可能具有古南大陆起源的背景;另一些区系成分似与热带亚州有着共同的历史渊源。
英文摘要: Menglun, located near the central-east of Xishungbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Southern Yunnan, China, namely 21°51'N, 101°25'E, enjoys a tropical monsoon and semihumid type of warm climate which is characterised by its clear seperation of dry season from rainy one. Different kinds of tropical vegetations and evergreen broad-leaved forests are distributed over the area, in which there occur abundant fungi. Nevertheless, the knowledge of fungi in that region appears to be incomplete, further studies need to be carried out. Based upon the earlier researches of mycologists, the author has made two expeditions to the above area in Aug., 1988, and in the middle of Oct. to Nov., 1989, 780 collections of higher fungi have been obtained, which represent about 130 genera and 300 species, among them 111 genera and 250 species (with 4 new species published recently by other mycologists, yet not collected again in the same places by the present author) have been cited in this thesis, including 2 genera, and 36 species and 1 variety new to China, e.g. Scyti nopogon pallescens (Bres.) Singer, Clarkeinda trachodes (Berk.) Singer, Termitomyces heimii Natarajan, Pterospora nitripes (Schw.)b Horak, Hygrophorus firmus Berk, et Br., Favolaschia tonkinensis (Pat.) Singer, Filoboletus mycemides Henn., Lepiota phlyctaenodes (Berk. et Br.) Sacc., Marasmius setulosifolius Singer ex Singer, Clitopilus crispus Pat., Ramaria capucina (Pat.) Petersen etc. For systematic arrangements, the schemes proposed by G. C. Ainsworth et al (1973) are followed, with some changes. Concerning the main composition of the higher fungi in the vicinity of Menglun, there are several genera of Xylariaceae, Sarcosyphaceae, Auriculariaceae, Dacrymycetaceae, Clavariaceae, Podoscyphaceae, Ganodermataceae, Amanitaceae (a. l.), Tricholomataceae, and Phallaceae. While having various connections with those of tropical and temperate regions of the would, the mycoflora of higher fungi of Menglun region is rich in tropical elements (67.3% of the total genera, 62.6% of the total species, excluding the cosmopolitan, below the same), yet with a considerable number of temperate elements (32.7% of the total genera, 32.3% of the total species), and some endemic species. The geographic distribution patterns may be divided into 11 types (table 1). By analysing these patterns, the author has concluded that some of the genera, and species of higher fungi in the area may have origin backgrounds of the Gondwanaland mass, while others seem to have historical affinities in common with those of the Tropical Asia. In addition, one statistical table and 2 figures of geographic distribution patterns have been provided, together with a sketch map showing the location of this study and a plate illustrating 4 interesting species of higher fungi new to China. All specimens studied are deposited in the Herbarium of Cryptogams at the Kuming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (HKAS).
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/902
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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西双版纳勐仑地区高等真菌的分类与区系地理研究.杨祝良[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,1990.20-25
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