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题名: 西双版纳傣族龙山与热带雨林植物多样性保护
作者: 刘宏茂
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1990
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 许再富
关键词: 西双版纳傣族龙山热带雨林 ; 物种多样性
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: “龙山”作为西双版纳傣族的一种传统文化信仰,已有了上千年的历史。分布于西双版纳傣族自治州内海拔800-900米的400多处龙山,在保护本区热带雨林的物种多样性和农业生态环境方面起了重要作用。由于“龙山”分布的地带历来是开垦利用的重点,因此,龙山就犹如小“绿岛”一样被农田和热带经济植物种植园所包围。本文通过对西双版纳地区不同面积大小和不同周围环境的龙山的野外样方调查,运用横向双比和纵向对比的方法进行研究。结果发现:龙山面积大小和相同面积样方内的物种数量无明显相关,但和物种属性组成以及主要优势种的衰退率明显相关,即,雨林成分和季雨林成分在物种总数中所占的比例与龙山面积大小呈正相关,广布成分和先锋成分所占的比例和龙山面积大小呈负相关;主要优势种的衰退率和龙山面积也呈负相关。当然,这种相关性受人类活动情况的影响。根据岛屿生物地理学区系成分平衡理论(The theory of flora's balance)对龙山内物种的发展趋势进行分析,发现了走向衰退的主要是雨林成分。龙山的物种组成,变化规律和自然保护区的相同群落情况大体相似。本文根据西双版纳热带的北缘性,生态系统的脆弱性,植被类型分布的交错性以及自然保护区的现状,就西双版纳自然保护区的设计以及有效性管理问题进行了一些讨论。
英文摘要: Holy Hill, as a Dai people's traditional belife, plays an important role in the conservation of the tropical vegetation and plant species diversity in tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna. There are about 400 Holy Hills distributed in Xishuangbanna, Souther Yunnan, and occupyied an total area of 300,00 - 500,00 ha. Among them, four Holy Hills and one proected area by Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden are exploitated by auther. This paper analyses the regular patters of the species varied in the Holy Hills with different size of area and environment in accordance with the exploitation. The results may provide the scientific basis for the design and effective managment of the nature reserves in Xishuangbanna. The regular Paters are as follow: (1) The species number in the same guarter area among the observed Holy Hills with different size of area are almost the same, but the similarity coefficient between the guarters are all below 0.5. (2) The constituent of species relate to the area size of Holy Hills. The number of rainforest elements and monsoon elements have positive relation to the areas of the Holy Hills, the pioneer elements and wide distributed elements have negative to the size of area. However, these relations are effected by hummanactivities. (3) In a 1800 m~2 sample, there were 75 species in Damong long Holy Hill, one of the exploitated areas, in 1958. After 30 years. 110 species have been found in the same sample, however the faster increasing elements are pioneers and wide distributers in percent. (4) The population dynamics may be that the depletive population are mainly rainforest elements. The regular patters mentioned above may be similar to those in the nature reserves, because they are as the Holy Hills like several "green island" isolated by paddy fields, economic plantations and villages ect. In order to protect the species diversity in tropical rainforest of Xishuangbanna, this paper suggests some oppinions on the desgin and effective management of the nature reserves: (1) The area of the nature reserves should be large enough to satisfy both the need of species number, and taking the factor of ECOTONE into consideration. (2) The typicalness of place choiced for nature reserves shound be noticed, owing to the similarity of elements between the same communities in different areas being less. (3) The pioneer and wide distributed elements should be cut off partly and the rain-forest elements should be reintroduced to the nature reserves for the effective management of protected species.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/900
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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