滇西北永芝村藏族的药用民族植物学研究
其他题名Medical Ethnobotany Research on Tibetan in Yong-Zhi Village, Northwest of Yunnan
孟珍贵
学位类型硕士
导师许建初
2005
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词滇西北 藏族 药用民族植物学厂医学人类学 定量研究
摘要随着工业化弊端的显现,民族民间医药以其自然性和可持续性倍受世人关注。与此同时,由于受西方医药文化和汉族文化的冲击,民族民间医药知识普遍面临消失的危机。为了保护和研究优秀的藏族民间医药知识,本文对一个藏族村寨—慎西北德钦县永芝村进行了系统的药用民族植物学定量研究:借鉴了医学人类学的调查方法,从该村村民的常见疾病入手,抽样调查了不同人群组生病后的就医行为、常用植物药及其特点、植物药知识在不同人群中的分布及传承等。结果显示:村民的常见疾患与当地的自然环境、生产生活方式及饮食习惯密切相关;生病后在跌打损伤、风湿、感冒和腹泻等常见疾患的治疗中植物药的使用频率较高,而不同人群对植物药的使用率,老年女性(31%)>成年男性(26.2%)>成年女性(25.60k)>老年男性(24.80k),青少年的使用率最低,仅17.1%,这意味着植物药知识有流失的危险。该村经常使用的药用植物约70种,分别属于45科64属,其中贝母(Fritillariaspp.),三颗针(Berberisspp.),十大功劳(Mahonia spp.),刺臭椿(Ailanthus vilmoriniana Dode),香白蜡树(Fraxinus suaveolensW. W. Smith)等最常使用;在70种药用植物中有92.9%分布在当地,63.1%生长在村子附近。另外,村民们对药用植物知识掌握的程度并不相同,67.50%的人仅认识或使用过3种以下的药用植物。而该知识的传承具有典型的家族性。针对改善藏族农村医疗卫生状况和民间藏医药知识可能流失的问题,作者建议:在民族地区村级水平结合草医培训建立传统民族医药小诊所;将传统藏族医药纳入当地农村医疗保障制度等。
其他摘要While many problems occurred during the process of industrialization, local traditional ethnic medical systems has drawn the attentions due to its natural and sustainable nature. At the same time, the local ethnic medicine is under the threat of extinction as the result of impacts from western and Han medicines. In order to study and protect the traditional medicines, this study focused on a Tibetan village, i.e. Yong-zhi, located in De-qin County, Yunnan Province, China, for a Medical Anthropology and Quantitative Ethnobotany research. The main research questions included what medical behaviors one takes when he gets diseases; what medical plants does the local people use; what is the distribution pattern of the medicine knowledge and how these knowledge are transmitted. It is found that the common diseases usually aroused by the environment, the way to make living and the eating habits. When the villagers get diseases, medicinal plants are frequently used for unexpected injuries ^ rheumatism^ cold and diarrhea. The frequency of using medicinal plants is different among various groups, i.e. old female (beyond 50 years old) (31%) >adult male (between 23 to 49 years old) (26.2%) >adult female (25.6%) >old male (24.8%) . For the young generations under the age of 22, the frequency of using medicinal plants is the least, only account for 17.1%. This indicated that there is threat of losing the knowledge on medicinal plants. 70 species are used as medicinal plants. They belong to 45 Families and 64 Genuses, among which 92.9% of the species are distributed at local area, and 67.5% of the species can be found around the village. The most frequently used species are Fritillaria spp., Berberis spp., Mahonia spp., Ailanthus vilmoriniana Dode., Fraxinus suaveolens W.W. Smith.. However, the degree of the knowledge towards the medicinal plants varies among local villagers. 67.5% of the villagers only recognized or used less than 3 species. Moreover, the transition of the knowledge is restricted within family members. In order to improve the rural health-care situations and to solve the potential prdblems on the losing of Tibetan medicine knowledge, the author proposed several suggestions, i.e. to establish rural clinics of traditional herbal medicine while training the local doctors, and to merge the local traditional medicine into the Rural Health Insurance system when the governments make the corresponding policy.
页数57
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/816
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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孟珍贵. 滇西北永芝村藏族的药用民族植物学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.
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