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题名: 斑龙芋属(天南星科)及近缘属植物的分类及引种栽培初步研究
作者: 李爱花
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2004
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 王仲朗
关键词: 斑龙芋属 ; 天南星科 ; 近缘属 ; 系统位置问题 ; 解剖学 ; 花粉形态学 ; 细胞学 ; 分支分类学 ; 引种栽培
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 斑龙芋属(Sauomatum Schott)是天南星科的一个较小的属,本属的分类地位、系统位置等方面还存在较大的争议,有人认为斑龙芋属植物应属于一个独立的属,但也有许多学者认为这个属不能独立,与犁头尖属(TPhonium schott)、天南星属(Arisae脚a scllott)亲缘较近。高黎贡山斑龙芋(S. gaoligongense)的发现,似乎又将该类植物与半夏属(Pinellio Tenore)联系起来。针对这个问题,本论文对Aieae族下的斑龙芋属、犁头尖属、天南星属、半夏属进行了形态解剖学、细胞学、花粉形态学、分支分类分析等方面的研究。另外,针对高黎贡山斑龙芋的种质资源保护问题,及我所天南星利·植物专类园的建设,开展了斑龙芋属及近缘属植物的引种栽培的研究。主要获得的研究成果小结如下;1角军剖学观察选取斑龙芋属及近缘属共15个种植物,对其进行了叶表皮光学显微镜及扫描电子显微镜观察比较。结果显示Areae族四属植物叶表皮形态特征较相似,属间不存在明显差异,因而认为卜卜表皮组成及其形态特征对于Areae族下的属间分类没有意义。叶表皮形态特征表明单籽犁头尖(Typhonium calcicolum)、昆明犁头尖(Typhonimlnningense)两个种较相近。此外,从观察结果来看,Areoe族下的四属为天南星科中较进化的类群。对斑龙芋属两种及犁头尖属三种植物进行了新梢组织结构特征分析。其中,高黎贡山斑龙芋、昆明犁头尖、单籽犁头尖、金平犁头尖(Tjinpingese)四个种的新梢组织结构分析为首次观察。斑龙芋属的两个种都属于typeB。昆明犁头尖、单籽犁头尖大多属于tyPoc,少数兼具tyPec和tyPeB的特征。金平犁头尖属于typeD。新梢组织结构支持将昆明犁头尖与单籽犁头尖两个种合并为一个种。新梢组织结构特征不支持将单籽犁头尖与T. larsenii的合并。从新梢的组织结构看,斑龙芋属与Areae族下的犁头尖属及疆南星属(ArzumL.)具有较近的亲缘关系。2花粉形态学研究利用扫描电镜对天南星科Areae几厂族四个属共邝种植物的花粉进行研究,其中,8种为首次报道。结果表明:Areae族四属植物的花粉形态较相似。花粉形态特征支持Areae族为本科较进化类群的观点。花粉粒刺间具颗粒为半夏属植物花粉的显著特征。从花粉形态看,斑龙芋属与犁头尖属较与半夏属的亲缘关系更近。西南犁头尖的花粉粒非常小,我们认为是较进化的种。犁头尖属内种间的花粉形态差异较大,甚至大于属间的差异,或许该属的系统分类需要作较大的变动。3细胞学研究对斑龙芋属及近缘属7个种进行了染色体核型研究,一个进行了染色体计数。其中虎掌(P inellia Pedatisecta)、滴水珠(P cordata)的核型为首次报道。发现了雪里见(A risaema rhizomatum)的一个新的染色体数目,该种的核型也为首次报道。岩生南星(A.saxatiZe)的染色体数目及核型均为首次报道。半夏(Pternata)的染色体数目为新报道。单籽犁头尖(T. calcicolum)的斓沧居群的染色体核型也为新报道。从染色体基数及倍性上看,作者认为斑龙芋属与犁头尖属及半夏属都较近缘,且该属较染色体基数及倍性多样化的犁头尖属和半夏属原始。核型数据为斑龙芋属植物的系统发育分析提供了数据。对斑龙芋属及三个近缘属共9个种植物进行染色体的CMA-DAPI荧光分带研究。结果显示,CMA带、DAPI带都不多或是没有,且多数种的CMA带与DAPI带互补。但金平犁头尖的cMA带与DAPI带几乎一致,也许因为荧光的分辨率不能区分开间隔较小的AT碱基对密集区与Gc碱基对密集区。荧光带型数据不能说明斑龙芋属与犁头尖属、半夏属哪个属关系更近,但能说明斑龙芋属与天南星属亲缘关系较远。4分支分类分析运用分支分类分析方法对斑龙芋属及其近缘属植物进行了系统发育分析,以四个属的15个种作为巧个分支分类单位,选择葛蒲科(Aooraceae)的曹蒲(Acorus.calamus L.)作为外类群,从斑龙芋属植物特征中选取了以繁殖器官特征为主并包括染色体核型在内的抖个性状作为建立数据矩阵的基本资料,并以外类群比较和通行的形态演化规律,及核型演化规律为依据对这些性状进行极化,采用改进的最大同步法和最小平行法进行分类运算,按照最简约的原则,运用演化长度较短的最大同步法谱系分支图,作为本文讨论的基础。依据分支分类数抵作者认为斑龙芋属与犁头尖属关系较近。另外,犁头尖属也许为“并非同一来源的几个小类群的组合”,其整个属的完整性值得质疑。5引种、栽培方面查阅了昆明植物所标本馆、西双版纳植物园标本馆及北京植物研究所标本馆的斑龙芋属植物的标本,检索‘查询并读阅了大量的相关文献,对本属植物的分布、分类、形态特征、分类学地位等有了较好的认识。在查阅标本过程中,发现了中国特有种高黎贡山斑龙芋的一个新的分布区,云南省贡山县,并订正了《独龙江植物》,《高黎贡山植物》中对该种地理分布的描述。并在野外调查中,发现了单籽犁头尖新分布区:滇南的思茅、滇西的高黎贡山。在云南省西双版纳勋腊县发现了金平犁头尖的一个居群,而且还进一步证明了该种是一个二倍体种,证实了该种是天南星科最低染色体基数的报道这一重要发现。从野外引种了斑龙芋属及近缘属植物10个种。对引种的Areae族下的四属17个种植物(包括植物园原已引种的7个种)的物候进行了观察,并与野外的物候进行比较,观察其生境及生长状况,结合其地理分布、分布区的水热条件,分析其较佳的生长条件,制定相应的栽培措施。并对高黎贡山斑龙芋进行了传粉观察,有性繁殖,无性繁殖,栽培繁殖的初步研究。
英文摘要: Sauromatum Schott is a small genus in family Araceae. The systematic problem of this genus has often been discussed by taxonomists, Petersen revealed that this genus was similar to the genus Arisaema, and suggested to put it in tribe Arisaematea along with Arisaema. From the similarity of inflorescence structure, Hetterscheid and Boyce proposed to merge this genus into the genus Typhonium. Bian et ah considered the genus Sauromatum was similar to the genus Pinellia from karyotype data. Aiming at resolving this problem, a relative comprehensive study was carried out in morphology anatomy, cytology, pollen morphology and cladistic analysis on Sauromatum Schott and three relative genera Typhonium Schott, Pinellia Tenore and Arisaema Schott in the same tribe Areae of Araceae. In addition, the introduction and cultivation was also studied on Sauromatum and its relative genera. The main progresses were summarized as follows: 1. Anatomy Leaf epidermis was examined under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for 15 species in the genera Sauromatum, Typhonium, Pinellia and Arisaema. The results revealed that the characters of leaf epidermis among the several genera were generally very similar, thus the genera were hard to differ from each other in the characters of leaf epidermis. The characters of leaf epidermis supported to merge Typhonium kunmingense into T. calcicolum. The stomata apparatuses of 15 species were all brachyparacytic types with 2 subsidiary cells. This type of stomata apparatus was considered more advanced than that with more than 2 subsidiary cells which existed in the majority tribes of Araceae. This also verified some taxonomists' viewpoint that the tribe Areae was more advanced in family Araceae. The shoot morphology of 2 species in Sauromatum and 3 in Typhonium were studied. Among them 4 species were reported for the first time. Two species in Sauromatum belonged to type B. Some plants of T. calcicolum and T. kunmingense belonged to type C, but others had both characters of type B and type C. The species T. jinpingense had the type D. The shoot morphology type supported to merge Typhonium kunmingense into T, calcicolum. The genus Sauromatum was much close relative to Typhonium and Arum compared with the other genera in tribe Areae from the shoot morphology. 2 Pollen morphology Pollen morphology of 18 species in four genera of the tribe Areae in Araceae was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Among 18 species, eight were examined for the first time, and eleven are endemic to China. Pollen morphologies among species were basically similar. The viewpoint that the tribe Areae is a derived taxon in Araceae was supported by pollen morphology. Granular exine sculpture was one of the distinct characters of genus Pinellia. The extraordinary small pollen of T. omeiense suggested that it was a much derived species. The pollen morphology among the species in Typhonium was highly diverse, which supported the conclusion towards the genus Typhonium using the cpDNA sequences analysis made by Susanne. 3 Cytology The karyotypes of 2 species in Sauromatum and 5 species in its three relative genera were analyzed, the chromosome number of 1 species was counted. The karyotypes of P. pedatisecta and P, cordata were reported for the first time. The chromosome number and karyotype of A. rhizomatum were newly and firstly reported respectively. The chromosome number and karyotype of A. saxatile were both reported for the first time. The chromosome number of P. ternate were newly reported here. The karyotype of Lancang population of T. calcicolum was also newly reported. The genus Sauromatum was similar to the genera Typhonium and Pinellia but much primitive from the chromosome base numbers and the variation of polyploid. The karyotype data provided useful evidences in systematic analysis. The CMA-DAPI fluorescence banding patterns of 10 species in Sauromatum together with its three relative genera were studied here for the first time. The result indicated that the majority species had the reverse bands of CMA and DAPI. But T. jinpingense was exceptional, its CMA bands and DAPI bands almost displayed in the same site on the chromosome. The fluorescence data were hard to reveal the relationship between Sauromatum and Typhonium, Pinellia. But Sauromatum was proved to be much distant from Arisaema. 4 Cladistic analysis Cladistic analysis was conducted on all three species in the genus Sauromatum and twelve species in its three relative genera using fifteen cladistic taxonomic units(CTUs). The species Acorus calamus L. infamily Acorusaceae was selected as out-group. Fourteen characters including karyotype were selected. Two principles, namely out-group comparison and generally acceptable rules of morphological evolution, were used for polarison of these selected characters. The data matrix from fifteen in-group species and characters were analyzed with the improved maximal same step method and minimal parallel evolutionary method. A parsimonious cladogram was then constructed by the improved maximal same step method with shorter evolutionary step and -used as the basis for analysis of the systematic relationship between Sauromatum and its relative genera. 5 Introduction and cultivation Specimens of the genus Sauromatum had been checked and studied in three herbaria in China, namely the Herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany(KUN[), Herbarium of Institute of Botany(PE), and Herbarium of Herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden(HITBC). A large amount of references were also collected and studied. Thus it was well understood on the distribution, classification, characteristics, and taxonomic position of the genus Sauromatum and its relative genera. After checking the specimens, anew distribution in Gongshan, Yunnan was found for the species Sauromatum gaoligongense (endemic to China). New distributions of T. calcicolum and T. jinpingense were also found in the field work. T. jinpingense was further testified as a diploid, thus the important discovery of lowest chromosome basic number in Araceae was proved as well. Ten species were collected mainly from E and N Yunnan. Seven species used to be collected in KBG. Phenology, living environment and growing conditions of these 17 species were studied. In addition, geographic distribution and wild conditions were also analyzed. Then the suitable condition was obtained to cultivate these species. Pollination of S. gaoligongense was also observed. The primary study of sexual reproduction, vegetative propagation and tissue cultivation on S. gaoligongense was also studied. The species S. gaoligongense could normally bloom in Kunming, but could not bear fruits so far. The bulbils in the petiole of this species could be used to propagate. The bulbil cuts can grow out clumpy buds after cultivating in the tissue medium. But the leaf and petiole could not grow using tissue culture.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/812
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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斑龙芋属(天南星科)及近缘属植物的分类及引种栽培初步研究.李爱花[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2004.20-25
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