扭柄花属系统演化的研究
其他题名Phylogeny of the Genus Streptopus
张挺
学位类型硕士
导师顾志建
2005
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词扭柄花属 系统演化 细胞地理
摘要本文从形态学、分类学、细胞学、分子系统学和生物地理学等方面对扭柄花属(StreptopusMichx)的系统演化和地理分布格局的形成进行了探讨。主要结果如下:1.细胞学对扭柄花属Streptopus4种(其中S.simPlex4个居群)和外类群万寿竹属Dispoum植物D.viridescens.核形态进行了研究。研究显示:该属是一个在染色体水平变异比较大的属。其中S.pavorusZn=32;S.obtusatusZn=18,x=9;S.对mPlx2n:14,16,x:7,8,均为首次报道的新数目.以前认为该属的体细胞染色体基数为x=8[2][1],结合本文报道的新数目,扭柄花属Streptopus有x=7,8,9三种染色体基数。2.分子系统学基于trnL-F和rPL16两个片段对扭柄花属Streptopus4种(其中S.simPlex染色体:14,16的2个居群)和外类群万寿竹属DisPou阴植物D.viridescens进行了分子系统学研究。在对扭柄花属的研究中,trnL-F和rpL16内含子序列在属内最大的序列趋异率不到4%,rpL16变异位点139个,信息位点仅有6个,分析显示,如此漫的基因进化速率并不能为系统发育重建提供足够的信息。本分子系统学的研究虽然在属内种间的关系的讨论中不能作为强有力的证据,但是与形态和细胞学的资料结合,还是作出了一些有意义的提示。花梗C型的S.koreaus和5.obtusatus聚为一支,花梗A型和B型的聚为另一枝,分子证据支持本文关于用花梗相对着生位置推测本属系统演化和分布格局的合理性。3.形态和分布在广泛的野外调查并查阅了大量标本和文献的基础上,对各种的形态特征和分布展开了论述。认为花梗C型北美、东亚、欧洲南部广泛分布的S.amplexifolius可能是比较原始的类群,而分布于东喜马拉雅一横断山的&打nlPI以花梗为A型,最为进化。生扭柄花属的现代分布格局以细胞学和形态学为基础结合地质资料,对扭柄花属Streptopus植物的现代地理分布格局的形成过程进行分析:扭柄花属Streptopus植物很可能是北极-第三纪成分的一员,该属可能起源于高纬度的北部区域集在北极地区气候变冷或一胡..碑'之二介挤辛一思声'牡·冰期是被迫南迁进入欧洲、东亚和北美大陆,.在中新世后,随喜马拉雅隆升,西南季风的形成,北方南移通道的打开,沿秦岭和黄河一线并环沿秦巴山区向横断山和喜马拉雅地区迁移。在迁移的途中分化出西南地区和喜马拉雅特有的S.obtusatus、S.simplex和S.paviflorus。
其他摘要Phylogeney and distribution pattern of the genus Streptopus were studied based on the data from morphology, cytology, DNA sequnences. Main results are summarized as follows:1. CytologyFour taxa (four populations of S. simplex) of Streptopus and the outgroup species Disporum viridescens were studied cytologically. The results indicated that the genus has great variation on chromosome number and basic chromosome number, and the S. paviflorus 2n=32; S. obtusatus 2n=18, x=9 and S. simplex 2n=14,16,x=7,8 were reported in the first time. The former study ^ indicated the genus's basic chromosome number was x=8, based on our cytology study results, the genus Streptopus's basic chromosome number should be renewed as: x=7, 8, 9.2. Molecular phylogenyDNA sequences of the genus Streptopus were analyzed by using /rnL-F and rpL\ 6 sequences. The species D. viridescens was taken as outgroup. Though the cladistic tree based on limited sequence information sites couldn't give powerful evidence to phylogeny study, it is indicate that species S, koreaus and S. obtusatusthe which peduncle with A is share the same clade, and the species peduncle with B and C in next clade, the molecular data support the conclusion about the genus's phylogeny and distuibution based on the peduncle character.3. The morphology and distributionThe evolution direction of the morphology in Slreptopus was discussed based on the extensive field observation, herbarium specimens and literatures examination. It is suggest that the S. amplexifolius distributed in North-America ^ East-Asia and South-Europe is the primordialest one, and the S. simplex which distributing in Himalayan-Hengdun Mountains is the most evolutional one. 4. The distribution pattern of genus Streptopus .The distribution pattern of genus Streptopus was discussed based on cytology , morphology and DNA sequence data. The information can be inferred as follows: The genus Streptopus may be part of the flora of Arctic-Tertiary which origin from the northern high latitude area. The genus was forced to migrate to south when the arctic area change into cold-era or ice-era, one clade migrate to East-Asia, another to North-America and the third to Europe. In the late Miocene, The East-Asia flora, with the lift of Himalayan-Hengdun Mountains, and the south-west monsoon formed, the passway that plant migrated from north to south was opened. The genus migrated from the East-Asia along the Qinling Mountains dispersed to Hengduan Moutains and the south of Eastern Himalaya. Attributed to this area's complex and variety circumstance, three endemic species emergented: S. obtusatus ,& simplex and S. pavifloms.
页数51
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/808
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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张挺. 扭柄花属系统演化的研究[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.
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