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题名: 天南星科岩芋属的研究
作者: 刘本玺
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2005
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 龙春林
关键词: 天南星科 ; 岩芋属 ; 形态学 ; 胚胎学 ; 系统分类处理 ; 民族植物学
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 岩芋属(Remusatia Schott)是天南星科(Aroceoe)芋族(colocosieae)中的一个小属,该属植物是民间常用的传统药用植物。本文对岩芋属植物从形态学、分类学、胚胎学和分支分类学等方面来开展研究,探讨了属内和属间系统演化关系,并且运用民族植物学的理论和方法对云南各民族利用岩芋属植物的知识经验进行调研和编目。主要研究结果如下:1形态学在广泛的野外观察、标本文献查阅和引种栽培观测的基础上,对岩芋属的4个种和泉七属、芋属、海芋属的6个种进行属内与属间的形态学比较分析。结果表明,岩芋和云南岩芋非常近缘,早花岩芋和曲苞岩芋差异明显;从根部形态和花部结构的演化趋势来看,岩芋属是泉七属向芋属演化的中间过渡类群,岩芋属的系统位置是确定的。2胚胎学首次对岩芋属曲苞岩芋的大抱子和小抱子的胚胎学发育特征进行报道。由于岩芋属存在胎座变异现象,曲苞岩芋不能代表岩芋属的胚胎学特征,同时芋族内其它属的胚胎学研究较少,本文的胚胎学研究还无法对岩芋属及其近缘类群进行胚胎学比较分析。岩芋属胚胎学的深入研究工作还有待于将来进一步开展。3分支分析以全缘泉七为外类群比较,选取32个形态学等综合性状,对岩芋属进行分支分析。结果表明,岩芋和云南岩芋非常近缘:组成一单系类群,靴带支持率95%;早花岩芋与岩芋、云南岩芋类群较为近缘,靴带支持率69%;曲苞岩芋与岩芋、云南岩芋类群关系较远,靴带支持率26%。初步把岩芋属内4种分为三个分。4系统和分类学处理形态学和分支分析的研究结果表明,岩芋属在芋族内位于泉七属和芋属之间;岩芋属内系统存在三个分支,以为此为依据来对岩芋属的系统发育进行重建,属内不再分组,直接将岩芋属按照分支关系进行排列,分别是①岩芋②云南岩芋③早花岩芋④曲苞岩芋。还就新发现的曲苞岩芋分布居群,进一步扩展了岩芋属在中国和云南的分布。5民族植物学运用民族植物学理论和方法,在云南省内岩芋属的分布地区,对当地民族利用岩芋属的方式和经验进行调查研究。发现岩芋属植物主要做为药用植物和观赏植物,并剖析了岩芋属利用知识和经验在当地民族之间的传播和发展·以及当地民间草医对岩芋属植物的持续利用和保护。
英文摘要: Remusatia Schott is a small genus of Colocasieae in the family. Araceae, and it is a traditional herbal medicine in China. In this paper, the phylogenetic relationships within Remusatia and its closely related genera were comprehensively investigated by means of morphology, embryology, cladistics. The indigenous knowledge of Remusatia had also been investigated and documentated through the ethnobotanical surveys. The main results were summarized as follows: 1 Morphology The comparative analysis of four species within Remusatia and six species among Steudnera, Colocasia, and Alocasia were conducted on the basis of extensive field observation, literature studies and herbarium specimen survey, and cultivation of living collections,. It was indicated that R. vivipara and R. yunnanensis are very closely relatives, while R. hookeriana and R. pumila are obviously different. In accordance with the development trend of morphology of roots and structure of flowers, Remusatia was believed as the transition group between Steudtiera and Colocasia. Its systematic position within Colocasieae is confirmed. 2 Embryology Macrospore and microspore developmental features of R. pumila were reported for first time. The placenta in the genus Remusatia always changed. It is not enough to take the embryological features of Remusatia pumila, as the representative for the whole genus. Only a few embryological investigations of other genera wthin Colocasieae had been achieved. The present investigation results between Remusatia and its close genera could not provided strong evidences for elaborations of the genus. Further embryological investigation of Remusatia was suggested for studies in the future. 3 Cladistics Based on thirty-two morphological characters sensu lato, a cladistics analysis of Remusatia and Steudnera henryana was carried out. It revealed that: 1) R. vivipara and R. yunnanensis were very closly relatives. They are in one group with 95% bootstrape; 2) R. hookeriana is close to R. vivipara and R. yunnanensis with 69% bootstrape; and 3) R. pumila is far from R. vivipara and R. yunnanensis with 26% bootstrape only. Remusatia could be divided into three branches cladistically. 4 Systematic and taxonomic treatment Based on the analyses of morphology and cladistics, a systematic treatment of Remusatia was proposed as follows: The position of Remusatia in Colocasieae is between Steudnera and Colocasia. It has three branches in Remusaia. The system of Remusatia had been rebuilt. Remusatia was not divided into sections. Four species could be phylogenically arranged as: the first one is R. vivipara, the second is R. yunnanensis, the third is R. hookeriana, and R. pumila is the fourth. 5 Ethnobotany The indigenous botanical knowledge of Remusatia in Yunnan had also been investigated tlirough the ethnobotanical surveys. Results revealed that Remusatia had been traditionally used as a herbal medicine, and an ornamental plant as well. The indigenous botanical knowledge" of Remusatia how to transfer and develop among local minority societies, and the folk herbal doctor how to utilize and protect Remusatia continually are analyzed in the present paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/806
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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天南星科岩芋属的研究.刘本玺[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.20-25
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