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题名: 土地利用/覆盖变化及其对土壤侵蚀过程的影响——以印度北部山地小流域Pali Gad为例
作者: 李巧宏
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2005
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 许建初
关键词: 遥感 ; 地理信息系统 ; 喜马拉雅西部 ; 土地利用/覆盖变化 ; 土壤侵蚀
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 占地球表面24%的山地生态系统为人类提供重要的生产和生态服务功能,超过12%、约7.2亿的人口生活在山区。喜马拉雅西部是人类活动的密集区域之一,其独特、丰富的自然资源对当地的生计支撑及在生态服务等方面起着重要的作用。由于长期以来当地人和山地生态系统的相互作用,特别是农业生产、牲畜业放牧、薪柴采集以及其它多样的资源利用方式,形成了一种特殊的山区文化景观。本文以印度北部的山地小流域(共有25个村子)为例,主要研究当地的资源利用状况、土地利用/覆盖变化及其对土壤侵蚀过程的影响。通过使用卫星数据对可获取自然资源进行评估分析,并通过从户到户的社会经济调查,对这些自然资源所提供的生态服务功能以及由于资源利用所导致的对它们的威胁程度进行估计。研究分析了村民对资源需求及获取的时空变化情况。结果显示,平均每户每天的人均薪柴采集量为1.12kg,平均每户每天通过修剪枝叶所获得的饲料人均采集量是3.69kg,平均每户每天从森林中采集草料所获取的饲料人均采集量为3.25吨。我们还尝试了对生态系统服务功能进行估测,结果显示,森林提供了更多的临时调节功能,而农业更多的是支撑服务功能,河流/水体给当地人提供了文化服务功能。在目前的研究中,从地形图中获取1963年和1983年的土地利用/覆盖图,并从遥感卫星数据中获取1999年和2004年的土地利用/覆盖图,得出这几十年来流域的景观格局及资源开发利用的变化趋势:另外,本研究也对土地利用/覆盖变化与地形条件的关系做了分析。结果表明,由于不同的坡向受到太阳光照的不同可以引起土地覆盖的变迁;海拔和坡度已不再是阻碍人们获取自然资源的因素,人们的活动范围正转移到更高的海拔和更陡峭的坡度。土地利用/覆盖变化的一个重要影响就是影响着土壤侵蚀过程进而造成土地生产力的下降。本文应用遥感技术评估了印度北部Pali Gad山地流域过去几十年里土地利用/覆盖变化及其造成的土壤侵蚀程度,并基于摩根参数模型(MorganParametrio Model)的方法来测定土壤的侵蚀程度;同时,文章也揭示了地形条件对土壤侵蚀过程有着直接的影响。我们知道,土壤中的含碳量主要受到土地覆盖状况的影响。我们在本研究中对土样的采集主要考虑了不同的海拔高度及土地覆盖类型两个因素。土样中的有机碳和有机氮含量在实验室中做了分析估测,其结果证实了土地利用/覆盖变化对土壤侵蚀过程确实产生了影响。本文以山区典型的人一地生态系统为例,这些生态系统中的自然资源的破碎化程度很高。长期以来,山区分布着得天独厚的丰富的森林资源,而这些资源却受到人类活动的不断干扰而大量减少,这样就势必导致人类对土地的利用方式发生改变。我们发现,人们对这个区域中贫膺土地的资源需求还在不断增加。因此,从长远来看,对资源的无止境的获取将不利于整个流域的不可持续发展。这类型的研究有助于我们进行流域资源利用策略对土地承载力影响的评估。
英文摘要: Mountain ecosystems cover about 24% of the earth's surface providing vital environmental goods and services. Twelve per cent (or about 720 million) of the global human population live in mountain areas. The western Himalaya is one of the most populated areas in the world which has played a central role as a life support system for the local people and as a repository of ecological services. The mountain cultural landscape has been shaped by livestock grazing, fuelwood collection and a range of other uses. The present work focuses on resource utilization, Land Use Land Cover Change (LUCC) and its impact on soil erosion processes in the Pali Gad watershed (consisting of 25 villages) situated in the lesser Himalaya. The assessment of the available natural resources was carried out using topographic maps and satellite-derived maps. The ecosystem services provided by them and the level of pressure placed on them was determined through socio-economic survey using individual household interviews. The study revealed a spatio-temporal variation in the resource requirements and extraction at the permanent villages. Average fuel wood consumption per household is 1.12 kg/day/capita and fodder consumption per household is 3.69 kg/capita/day from lopping and 3.25 kg/capita/day from grass collected from the forest. An attempt was made to evaluate the ecosystem services. The forest supplies more of the provisional and regulatory services while agriculture provides mainly supporting services and river bed/water body offer more cultural services to the locals. The changes in landscape pattern and resource exploitation have been studied for the year 1963 -1983 and 1999 - 2004 using topographic sheets and satellite derived cover-type maps, respectively. The LUCC analysis has been carried out with respect to topography. The results show that the land cover dynamics depend on aspects of sun illumination. Altitude and slope are not barriers for resource extraction and the human activity zone is shifting towards higher altitudes and slopes. One of the important impacts of land use land cover change is its impact on soil erosion processes which in turn results in declining land productivity. The present study has also evaluated impact of LUCC on soil erosion processes for the past four decades. A process-based Morgan Parametric Model has been used to determine the rate of soil erosion. It reveals the direct impact of topography on soil erosion processes. The land cover predominantly holds the nitrogen content of the soil. Random stratified soil samples have been collected from different altitudes and cover classes. The organic Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) contents have been estimated. It predicts the impact of land use land cover change on soil erosion processes. This study gave examples form human-shaped ecosystems in mountainous regions where fragmentation of natural resources has been observed. These forest resources have until recently been abundant in the mountains but are today decreasing due to human invasion of forests as caused by land use change. An increase in resource requirement has been noticed in the less productive lands of the region. The increased resource extraction from the entire watershed resulting from significant changes in the land cover and land use practices may not be sustainable in the long run. These types of studies - as presented here- help to assess the effects of resource utilization strategies on the land capability of the watersheds.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/802
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
土地利用/覆盖变化及其对土壤侵蚀过程的影响——以印度北部山地小流域Pali Gad为例.李巧宏[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.20-25
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