云南德宏傣族景颇族自治州竹类资源及其民族植物学研究
其他题名Bamboo Resources and Ethnobotany in Dehong, Yunnan, Southwest China
袁明
学位类型硕士
导师五慷林
2005
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词竹资源 竹文化 民族植物学 德宏
摘要德宏傣族景颇族自治州地处云南省西南部,位于东经97°31'-98043',北纬23°05~25°20'。云南南部和西南部是云南乃至中国竹类资源最为丰富的地区,与其邻近地区一起构成了世界木本竹类的多样性中心。德宏正处于这个中心位置,竹类资源丰富,拥有“竹乡”之誉称。德宏州民族众多,世居民族有傣族、景颇族、阿昌族、德昂族、傈僳族、低族等。各民族在日常生活中均与竹子有着十分密切的关系,经过世世代代的积累,形成了具有浓郁地方特色的民族竹文化。本研究主要对德宏竹类资源及其民族植物学进行了研究,其主要研究结果如下:1.德宏州的竹类资源德宏的竹类资源丰富,有16属56种及变种,种类以旧世界热带支系为主,牡竹属(Dendrocalamus)是本地区竹类分布种类最多、数量最大的属。德宏有竹林10,280hm2,具有较大面积的天然竹林和竹阔混交林,热性竹林、暖性竹林、温性竹林在境内均有分布,以热性竹林为主,拥有丛生、散生、攀援状等生态类型。2.德宏州竹亚科植物区系德宏分布的竹种(区系分析时未包含引种的竹种)中,仅美竹(Phyllostachysmannii)是温带分布的种,其余45种及变种均为热带分布的种类。有18种分布到缅甸,占39.13%,说明德宏的竹类区系与缅甸有很密切的联系;仅有7种分布到华南,表明德宏与华南地区的竹类区系联系较弱。德宏竹亚科有许多云南特有种和中国特有种分布,中国特有种22种,其中云南特有种有16种。在16个云南特有种中,有10种仅分布在云南南部,说明本地区的竹类区系与滇南、滇东南有很密切的联系。3.德宏州竹类的民族植物学本研究初步探讨了德宏州原住民对竹亚科植物的传统命名与分类。从原住民传统命名的形式来看,与林奈的双名法有极其相似之处。民族民间竹名大部分都是由2个部分组成,其中一部分表示该植物的属性,即相当于双名法中的属名,另一部分表示竹种的特性,如形态、生态、利用等,相当于双名法中的种加词。从德宏州原住民的传统分类系统来看,他们都将竹类植物归属于“树”类。在“树”类植物中,景颇族和傈僳族都将竹类植物与其它木本植物加以区别,视为一个独立的类群,并体现在他们的植物命名系统中。初步探讨了德宏州以竹命名的村寨地名,分析了这些地名构成形式的多样性、所涉及竹种的多样性和民族多样性。从衣食住行等物质方面和文化利用方面探讨了德宏的民族竹文化现象,并对德宏竹类资源的传统保护和管理进行了调查研究。在这些研究的基础上,对德宏州发展竹产业,保护和可持续利用竹资源和民族竹文化提出了建议。
其他摘要Dehong, a Dai-Jinpo Autonomous Prefecture, is located in the Southwest of Yunnan Province, China. It lies in 23°50'~25°20' N, and 97°31'~98°43' E. There are the most abundant bamboo resources in Southern and Southwestern parts of Yunnan whether in Yunnan or China. Those two regions with their neighbouring areas formed a diversity center of Bambusoideae in the world, and Dehong lies in the area. Dehong is called "the hometown of bamboo". There are many minorities, such as Dai3 Jinpo, Achang, De'ang, Lisu, Wa, etc, who inhabit Dehong. The minorities' daily life and working are closely connected with bamboo. The native cultures of bamboos with indigenous characteristics are formed by generations and generations accumulated among those these minorities. In this study, the bamboo resources and its ethnobotany in Dehong are investigated and researched, The results are as following: 1. Bamboo Resources in Dehong There are 16 genera, 56 species and variations in Dehong. And most species belong to the old world tropic subclade. Dendrocalamus has the largest number of species and the richest resources in Dehong. There are 10,280 hm2 bamboo forest in Dehong, including a lot of nature bamboo forests and nature bamboo-tree mixed forests. There are tropical bamboo forest, warm bamboo forest and cold bamboo forest, which are all distributed in Dehong. However, tropic bamboo forest is the largest one among these bamboo forests. Clustered, scattered and scrambled bamboos, all of them exist in Dehong. 2. The Flora of Bambusoideae in Dehong Among all the species of bamboos (excluding exotic bamboo species) in Dehong, only Phyllostachys mannii is a temperate-distributed species, the others are all tropic-distributed species. The 18 species of bamboos among the bamboo species in Dehong are distributed to Myanmar, which is 39.13% of the total species in Dehong. These results indicate that the flora of bamboos between Dehong and Myanmar has very closely relationship. The 7 species are distributed to South China, which indicate that the flora of bamboos between Dehong and South China has weakly relationship. Among all the bamboo species in Dehong, the 22 species are endemic to China, thereinto, the 16 species endemic to Yunnan. The 10 species are endemic to South Yunnan which of mentioned 16 species, which shows the flora of bamboos in Dehong, is very closely related to that in South Yunnan and Southeast Yunnan. 3. Ethnobotany of Bamboo Resources in Dehong Traditional nomenclature and folk classification of bamboos of indigenous people in Dehong were studied in this study. The form of bamboo traditional nomenclature is very similar to binomial nomenclature created by Linnaeus. Their nomenclatures of bamboos almost are composed by two parts, which one indicates the general attributes, i.e. similar to the first name of Linnaeus'; the other indicates the characters of the species, including morphology, ecology, utilization, etc., in other words, it is similar to the second epithet name of Linnaeus'. In the classification system of minorities' tradition, bamboo is a kind of "trees", rather than "grass". Jinpo and Lisu people consider that bamboo is a special group, which is different from other "trees". And two minorities use a special term to name bamboo, which displays in their traditional nomenclatures. Village's names related bamboos in Dehong were researched in this paper. It was also analyzed relationships of these names with the diversities of the formed history, the species and minorities. The culture of bamboos in Dehong was researched both based on the material utilization and the cultural utilization. And traditional protection and management of bamboo resources in Dehong were investigated and researched. Based 'on forementioned studies, it was proposed to conserve/protect, develop and sustainable utilize bamboo resources and traditional bamboo cultures.
页数109
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/798
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
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袁明. 云南德宏傣族景颇族自治州竹类资源及其民族植物学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.
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