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题名: 松茸-分布、环境因子和可持续利用
作者: 杨雪飞
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2005
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 周浙昆
关键词: 松茸 ; 环境因子 ; 空间分布 ; 松茸-寄主植物关系 ; 可持续利用
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 松茸是一个具有重要经济价值的野生食用菌类群。松茸资源的可持续利用和管理不仅引起了地方政府和研究者的关注,也成为那些以该资源为主要经济来源的当地村民的日常议题。科学合理的利用和管理是保证该资源可持续利用的必要手段,而关于松茸资源空间分布和环境因子对其影响的知识是实现科学利用管理的关键之一。本研究从宏观和微观两个水平出发,以三个空间尺度为基础,分析讨论了在不同尺度下松茸的空间分布及其影响因子。在宏观尺度研究中,基于地理信息系统和统计学方法分析了中国松茸产地的气候特征,划分了中国松茸分布的气候适宜区。在生境尺度研究中,以云南省香格里拉县吉迪行政村为例,通过不同的统计学方法,分析植被特征,地表覆盖特征和地形地貌特征对松茸分布的影响。同时,利用逻辑斯递回归模型和地理信息专家知识系统模拟松茸的空间分布,并对两个模型进行对比。在微观水平研究中,通过在培养基中加入植物提取物,观察测量培养过程中菌丝体形态结构、菌落直径和生物量的变化来分析寄主植物对松茸生长发育的影响。研究得出,松茸的空间分布是不同尺度下各种环境因子相互作用的结果。在宏观尺度上,影响松茸分布的环境因子包括气候、植被、土壤等;在生境尺度上,包括森林覆盖类型、枯枝落叶覆盖度和海拔高度等;在微观尺度上,松茸的生长发育受寄主植物与松茸之间物质交流关系的影响。研究还得出适宜中国松茸分布的气候区形成从西南到东北带状分布的格局,与喜马拉雅山脉、横断山脉、秦岭山脉和长白山脉的分布吻合。逻辑斯递回归模型和地理信息专家知识系统模拟出来的松茸分布在一定程度上反映了当地的实际情况。另外,通过对比发现地理信息专家知识系统比逻辑斯递回归模型经济有效。·.最,本文还分析了云南省松茸资源开发利用过程中出现的问题,并提出:改变"以量取胜"到"质量并重"的松茸出口贸易模式;杜绝童茸和过熟开伞个体的收购行为:细化和胡确林下资源的权属;鼓励发展以政府-科研机构一农户为一体的半人工促培和松茸生境管理试验基地等建议,以此保证云南省松茸资源的可持续利用。
英文摘要: Matsutake are a group of economically important wild edible mushrooms. Harvesting of Matsutake from its natural habitats in China is increasing, and the sustainable management and use of this resource has drawn the attention of the local government and researchers. Moreover, sustainable utilization of Matsutake has become a major concern among the local mushroom pickers. It is necessary to undertake a scientifically sound utilization and management approach in order to insure Matsutake sustainability. This approach involves developing knowledge of the spatial distribution of the mushrooms and its environmental factors oThis research studied the environmental factors that affect the distribution of Matsutake mushroom, and based on this information, subsequently mapped and modelled the spatial distribution of the mushroom. It involved studies from macro level to micro level, and focused on three scales; macro scale, habitat scale and micro scale. By macro scale, this study refers to China in general. Using GIS and statistics as major tools, climatic features of Matsutake production sites in China were analysed and to elucidate the necessary climatic conditions for Matsutake, which enabled the identification of potential climatic suitable regions for the mushroom's distribution. On a habitat scale, this study was carried out at Jidi administrative village - a Matsutake production site in Shangri-La County, located in northwest of Yunnan. Environmental factors related with forest cover, understorey cover, forest floor cover and geomorphology characteristics were investigated by various statistical analyses. In addition, two models, namely a Logistic Regression and a GIS Expert System, were used to map the spatial distribution of Matsutake based on the important environmental factors, and their performance was compared. On a micro scale, this study focused on the relationship between Tricholoma matustake and its host plant- Querus pannosa. It is hypothesized that T. matsutake growth or fruiting depends on some chemical input from. Hence a lab experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Q. pannosa chemical extracts on T. matustake mycelia growth.It was concluded that the distribution of Matsutake mushroom is the result of interaction of various environmental factors at different scales. These environmental factors included climatic features, vegetation cover, and soil feature on macro scale; characteristics of forest cover, understorey cover, forest floor cover and elevation on a habitat scale. On micro scale, it was found that plant extracts prolonged the life cycle of T. matustake mycelia colonies. Therefore, it was speculated that the host plant may provide necessary materials required for Matsutake mushroom growth and development. It was also concluded that, broadly, Matsutake distribution zone occurs as a wide belt stretching from northeast to southwest China, overlapping with major mountainous regions including the Eastern Himalayas, Heng-duan Mountains, Qing-ling Mountains and Chang-bai Mountains. Comparison of the two spatial models revealed that both of the models were capable of predicting the presence and absence of Matsutake with acceptable accuracy. However, the GIS Expert System was favoured as it outperformed the Logistic Regression, not only in terms of mapping accuracy, but because it demanded less samples.This thesis concluded by discussing some problems concerning the current utilization and management of Matsutake hi Yunnan Province. Several recommendations were proposed to secure the sustainable utilization of Matsutake into the future. First, to prevent the mushroom dealers from purchasing fruit bodies smaller than 5 cm hi length. Second, to change the exporting strategy from "quantity" to "quality". Third, to clarify resource tenures and user rights. Fourth, to promote and develop joint research on habitat management from incorporating local government, academic researchers and mushroom pickers.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/762
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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松茸-分布、环境因子和可持续利用.杨雪飞[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.20-25
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