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题名: 中国鳞毛蕨属纤维鳞毛蕨组及相关类群的分类学研究
作者: 向建英
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2005
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 吴征镒
关键词: 鳞毛蕨属 ; 纤维鳞毛蕨组 ; 细胞学 ; 解剖学 ; 分类订正
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 主要通过形态学、细胞学、解剖学的研究、对鳞毛蔽属纤维鳞毛放组及相关类群的系统关系进行了探讨,对纤维鳞毛蔗组进行了分类修订,进而对该属的一些分类学问题进行了初步的研究和探讨。1.细胞学研究对分布于中国的鳞毛旅属纤维鳞毛蔽组及相关类群共22个种进行了细胞学的研究。观察结果表明,所研究的种中n个种为无融合二倍体种(另还有一个种包括无融合二倍体细胞类型),细胞染色体计数结合繁殖方式研究的结果对区分纤维鳞毛旅组和近缘的分类群的意义不大,在中国一喜马拉雅地区,无融合生殖二倍体类型为鳞毛旅属植物最主要的细胞类型。对鳞毛蔽属植物已有的细胞学报道统计得出,无融合三倍体类型是鳞毛放属内最常见的细胞类型,而不同的组及不同分布区的分类群,细胞类型的组成都可能存在着较大的区别。、据不同分布区内鳞毛蔽属植物的细胞类型组成推测,有性二倍体叶无融合生殖二倍体叶无融合三倍体的细胞类型变化,可能是该属迁移扩散的过程中各种细胞类型主要的进化方向。此外,对同一植株不同抱子囊内产生不同类型抱子的现象进行了初步的总结和讨论,并认为对这些种的繁殖特性进行深入细致的研究,具有重要的意义。2.解剖学对鳞毛放属纤维鳞毛蔽组及其相关类群共56个种进行了叶表皮特征的观察。该属内共存在9种气孔器类型·无规则型·极附型·聚合极附型、腋下细胞型、聚合腋下细胞型、二细胞型、不等细胞型·双不等细胞型和四细胞型·通常每个种的叶片下表面都存在着以上所列举的气孔器类型中的2一4种。由不同类群中的气孔器类,推测鳞毛威属内不同气孔器类型系统发育的总体趋势为无规则型叶简单型(极附,腋下细胞型,二细胞缪不等细胞,卿胞)叶聚翘(聚合极附型,聚撇下细胞型,双不等细胞)气孔器类型的比较研究得出,平鳞亚属中包含了简单到复杂的种气孔器类型而可能是该属最原始的类群,奇羽亚属和泡鳞亚属的气孔型中规则型较为复杂的聚合型气孔器为主,可能是出平鳞亚属分化而来的。结果表明叶表皮特征对区分鳞毛旅属内亚属有一定意义,而对纤维鳞毛蔽组及其近缘类群的划分意义并不大。在鳞毛蔽属内,气孔器大小和孢子大小一样,在二倍体种间存在着很大的差异,而且不一定与倍性呈正相关。3.形态学研究和分类订正对保存于PE、KUN、PYU的标本,尤其是模式标本进行了细致的形态研究,特别对鳞片进行了仔细观察。通过数次的野外观察和采集,综合形态特征、地理分布及实验研究的结果,对中国的纤维鳞毛旅组及研究中所涉及的近缘类群进行了分类订正。对2个种、2个亚种进行了归并后,确认中国纤维鳞毛蔽组共有7个利'。此外,报道了本属的3个新种,尚有3个种的分类地位尚待确定。
英文摘要: Here we present evidence from morphology, cytology, anatomy and the phylogeneic relationships among species of Chinese Dryopteris Adanson sect. Fibrillosae Ching, discussion and studies of its related taxa, taxonomic revision of sect. Fibrillosae is based on these studies.1. CytologyChromosome numbers and spores per sporangium are counted for 7 species of Sect. Fibrillosae and 15 related taxa. The result is not informative for the differentiation of taxa in Sect. Fibrillosae and their related taxa, because 11 species studied are apomictic diploid species (and one species include apomictic diploid race). In Sino-Himalaya area, apomict diploid cytotypes has highest frequency. Statistical results indicated that apomictic triploid type has accounted for the most high proportion in Dryopteris. In different sections, and the taxa from various geographical regions, the cytotypes are possibly different. The dispersal of genus Dryopteris is possibly follows the evolutionary pathway of sexual diploid -* apomict diploid -+ apomict triploid. We have made a preliminary summary and discussion of the phenomenon of different kind of spores resulting from the same plant, and believe that further detail study is required to reveal their reproductive characters.2. AnatomyLeaf epidermis of 56 species of Dryopteris have been observed under light microscope (LM). The results show that there are nine types of stomatal apparatus according to Dilcher's nomination: anomocytic, polycytic, copolocytic, axillocytic, coaxillocytic, diacytic, anisocytic, amphianisocytic, tetracytic. Generally, 2-4 types co-exist in every species' leaf. From the different stomatal apparatus types in each taxa, we can infer the trend for the stomatal apparatus types in Dryopteris to beanomocytic -" polycytic (axillocytic, diacytic, anisocytic, tetracytic) -copolocytic(coaxillocytic, amphianisocytic). The results show that epidermic characters are not souseful for the separation of taxa in Sect. Fibrillosae and its relatives. However, it maybe informative for certain taxonomic problems. Similar as spore, the stomata size arevariable in diploid species of Dryopteris, and not always in direct ratio to the ploidylevel as in most cases. The results may suggest that Subgenus Dryopteris includes allthe stomatal apparatus types found in Dryopteris, and it is possible to be the mostprimitive subgenus in Dryopteris. The subgenus Pycnopteris and subgenusErythrovariae lack the anomocytic type, containing mainly the complex types(copolocytic, coaxillocytic, amphianisocytic) so it is quite possible that they areoriginated and differentiated from subgenus Dryopteris.3. Taxonomic treatmentOn the basis of specimens examined (esp. type specimens), field observation and vouchered specimens, considering morphological characters, distribution and cytological and anatomical evidences, the taxonomy of Chinese Dryopteris sect. Fibrillosae and related taxa was revised. Two species and two varieties were synonymized. Seven species are proposed in Chinese Dryopteris sect. Fibrillosae. Three taxa are left for further study to ascertain their taxonomic position, three new species are proposed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/750
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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中国鳞毛蕨属纤维鳞毛蕨组及相关类群的分类学研究.向建英[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.20-25
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