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题名: 云南产鸢尾属植物的引种栽培和分类学研究
作者: 沈云光
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2004
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 管开云
关键词: 鸢尾属 ; 云南 ; 引种栽培 ; 分类学订正 ; 细胞学 ; 种子形态 ; 药用价值
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 鸢尾属(Iris L.)植物具有较高的观赏价值、许多种在世界园艺上有较高的地位。其中一些种还是我国传统中药的重要组成部分。云南是鸢尾属植物的主要分布区之一,种类丰富,被昆明植物园新近列为重点引种和保护的对象之一。硕士阶段的工作就是结合昆明植物园的这一目标,主要对该属植物进行引种栽培方面的研究。而且作为第一阶段的主要目标就是在广泛开展野外调查的基础上,在本园中较系统地进行引种、栽培繁殖和适应性方面的研究,同时开展了一些分类学方面的初步研究和杂交育种的前期工作。通过几年的努力,取得了较好的成绩,在有限的时间内基本完成了论文设计时的目标。本园的鸢尾属植物种类由最初的8种增加到了23种,初步了解了所引种类在昆明的生长习性,并对四种原产慎西北的种类进行了播种、繁殖、栽培等方面较详细的研究。订正和证实了几个分类学问题。同时开展了细胞学和种子扫描电镜方面的研究,为今后本园开展鸢尾属植物研究打下了较好的基础。主要获得的研究成果小结如下:1、引种、栽培方面l)查阅了昆明植物所标本馆、北京植物所标本馆及东北师大标本馆的鸢尾属植物标本,并从英国爱丁堡植物园、丘园借阅了7种鸢尾属植物的标本和标本照片。检索、查询并复印了大量的相关文献,对鸢尾属的分布、形态特征、生长环境、分类学地位、园艺上的重要性等有了较好的认识。2)几年来,先后对云南的西北部、东南部等云南主要的分布区进行了7次野外考察,采集了45份标本、17号种子、50号活植物,对野外生境有了较明确的认识,并通过种子交换的途径,获得了省外的一些种。目前共计有鸢尾属植物23种,云南原产15种,占云南分布种类的68%。3)通过对原产地与昆明地区生态因子的比较,分析了引种栽培的23种鸢尾属植物的生物学特性、分布和生境,总结了生长状况,简要小结了栽培管理的方法、繁殖技术和病虫害防治,对所引种类在昆明的生长习性有了较好的了解,并从中获得了一定的栽培管理经验。4)选取了4种鸢尾属植物:高原鸢尾(I.collettii)、长草鸢尾(I。dezavayi)、西南鸢尾(I.bulzeyana)、金脉鸢尾(I.chryrsographes)进行了播种试验,并对长草鸢尾进行了栽培试验。试验结果表明低温处理能有效的促进鸢尾种子萌发,种皮对长葶鸢尾、金脉鸢尾的种子萌发有一定的抑制作用,而不同的播种基质对4种鸢尾属植物种子萌发的影响各不相同。在栽培试验中,充足的光照是长草鸢尾正常生长的主要因素,此外4种不同栽培基质的试验结果表明腐殖土中的苗生长最健壮,其次为红土和混合土,园土表现最差,植株生长细弱,根系不发达。2、分类学修订 结合野外考察、查阅标本和文献及相关研究,分别对中甸鸢尾(I.subdichotoma)、大理鸢尾(I.daliensis)和I.phragmitetoru用所存在的分类学问题进行了讨论。1)中甸鸢尾的分类修订在模式产地引种了中甸鸢尾,对活植物进行了仔细的观察,发现其外花被实际上有桔黄色鸡冠状附属物,修订了原描述中错误的地方,并增补了一些描述,并发表了一个新的白花变型。在此基础上,对该种在亚属中的位置进行了探讨,通过比较可能所属的3个亚属的特征,并结合形态特征、抱粉学、开花及休眠特性等方面的证据,提出了将中甸鸢尾置于尼泊尔鸢尾亚属中更为妥当的观点。2)大理鸢尾是高原鸢尾的一个变种还是一个独立的种通过对高原鸢尾(I.collettii)和大理鸢尾主要形态学性状的比较,地理分布、生长环境的观察以及细胞学分析,同时结合前人抱粉学的研究结果,认为两者区别明显,认为把大理鸢尾作为一个独立的种处理更自然一些。3)在昆明有分布仅见唯一记录的I.phragmitetoru脚相关考证通过原始文献的查阅、野外考察和形态特征及生境的比较分析,认为1916年在昆明滇池发现的唯一记录I. phragmitetorum与更广泛分布的燕子花(Ilaevigata)可能为同一种植物。3、细胞学研究对15种鸢尾属植物(其中14种为云南原产)进行了体细胞染色体核型分析和计数。其中大理鸢尾、大锐果鸢尾(I.cuniculiformis)的染色体数目和核型为首次报道,分别是2n=34=14m(4SAT)+18sm(2SAT)+2st,2n=22:4m+6Sm+12St (2SAT)。长管鸢尾(I.dolichosiPhon)的核型为首次报道,即2n=22=4m+12sm+6st。矮紫苞鸢尾(I. ruthenica var.nana)、尼泊尔鸢尾(I.decora)和中甸鸢尾的染色体数目为新报道,其中矮紫苞鸢尾的三个居群表现出不同的核型,分别为中甸居群2n=42=3om+12sm(2SAT),丽江居群2n=42=28m+14sm(2STA),尼西居群2n=42=36m+6sm(4 SAT)。尼泊尔鸢尾和中甸鸢尾的核型分别为2n=22=14m+6Sm(2SAT)+2st,2n=42=18m+24sm。通过对染色体形态和数目的分析,讨论了无附属物亚属(S ubg.Limniris),尼泊尔鸢尾亚属(Subg.Nopalensis),鸡冠状附属物亚属(S ubg.Crossiris)和须毛状附属物亚属(subg.Iris)的核型特点和变化,以及各种间的进化关系。同时还对鸢尾属染色体基数的多样性和整倍体与非整倍体的变化进行了探讨。4、种皮形态研究通过观察比较和种皮扫描电镜的研究,对25种鸢尾属植物及2个近缘属虎皮花(Tigridia Jtlss.)和庭菖蒲属(Sisyrinchiltm L.)的2种植物的种子形态进行了分析比较。结果显示种子形态在各亚属或组内表现出较好的一致性,其中无附属物亚属的大部分种在种子形状、种皮表面纹饰上与尼泊尔鸢尾亚属、鸡冠状附属物亚属、须毛状附属物亚属和琴瓣鸢尾亚属(Subg.Xyridion)明显不同。此外,从观察结果来看,尼泊尔鸢尾亚属应该属于一类进化的类群。5、药用价值鸢尾属植物除了有较高的观赏价值外,许多种还具有药用价值。通过对中国历史上药用植物记载的研究,对云南分布的7种鸢尾属植物的药用价值进行了概括总结。
英文摘要: Iris, one of the world's best know and most loved garden plants, was recently selected as one of main objective plant groups for conservation and cultivation in Kunming Botanical Garden (KBG). The thesis was thus focus on investigating, introducing and cultivating wild plants in the genus Iris, especially those native to Yunnan Province which is one of the main distribution area of the genus in China. In addition, some other studies were also carried out including taxonomic revision on some taxa, cytological analysis, seed morphology observation and finally presenting a summary of medicinal value on the species of the genus Iris from Yunnan. The main progresses were briefly summarized as follows: 1. Studies on plant introduction and cultivation of wild plants 1) Iris specimens have been checked and studied in three important herbaria in China, namely the Herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN), and the Herbarium of Institute of Botany (PE) as well as the Herbarium of Northeast Normal University. Some specimens of 7 species in the genus Iris were carefully studied, which were received from two herbaria, i.e. the Herbarium of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (E) and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K). A large amount of references were also collected and studied. Thus it is well understood on the distribution, characteristics, habitat, taxonomic position and the horticulture importance of the genus Iris. 2) Seven times of investigations were carried out mainly to the NW and SE Yunnan, collecting 45 sheets of specimens, 17 collected numbers of seeds as well as 50 collected numbers of living plants from different localities. Some Iris seeds, not native in Yunnan, were acquired by seed exchange. So far, 23 species in the genus Iris grow in KBG, including 15 species from Yunnan Province, accounting for 68% of the province's total. 3) The growth status in KBG was summarized for all the introduced iris plants, together with biological characters, distribution and habitat. Some other cultivation techniques were briefly present, such as cultivation managements, propagation techniques, pest and disease control. It is now much better understood on the growth habit of the Iris plants in KBG. 4) Studies of seed germination on the species of I, collettii, I. delavayi, I. bulleyana and I. chrysographes were carried out. The results indicated that low temperature, seed-coat and cultivated media have different effects to seed germination. The studies of introduction and cultivation, especially on the species of I. delavayi, were also carried out. The results indicated that, the intensity of illumination is a main factor influencing the normal growth of the introduced plants, and compost is most suitable medium for; the cultivation of wild irises in Kunming, while red soil and mixture soil are good for cultivation to plant growth, but the garden native soil in KBG was the worst for the cultivation of wild irises. 2. Taxonomic Revision Based on wild investigation, studies of herbarium specimens and literatures, the taxonomic problems of I. subdichotoma, I daliensis and I. phragmitetorum were discussed respectively. 1) The taxonomic position of I, subdichotoma should be reconsidered because of a clear crested appendage on outer perianth which is obviously different from the characteristics noticed in Subg. Pardanthopsis. Based on the studies of its plant, pollen and morphology, blooming and dormancy habit, it is considered that it is more appropriated to treat the species in Subg. Nepalensis. In addition, a white flower form of I, subdichotoma was newly found in the wild. 2) It has been disputed whether I. collettii var. acaulis should be treated as a variety or species. By comparison of morphologic characteristics, habit and cytological analysis between I. collettii and I. collettii var. acaulis, and combining previous observation of palynology, it is considered that the two taxa are evidently different and I. collettii var. acaidis is better to treat as a species, namely I. daliensis. 3) According to previous literatures and our field investigation, it is considered that I. phragmitetorum which has only one collect record in the place near Kunming in 1916, is possibly the same to the much widely distributed species of I, laevigata. 3. Karyomorphological Studies The present paper reports the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of 15 species of Iris (14 species from Yunnan). Among the species studied, the karyotypes and chromosome numbers of I. daliensis and I. cuniculiformis were reported for the first time, namely 2n=34=14m(4SAT)+18sm(2SAT)+2st for the former species and 2n=22=4m+6sm+12st(2SAT) for the latter respectively. The karyotype of I. dolichosiphon of 2n=22=4m+12sm+6st, is also firstly reported. The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of I. ruthenica var. nana, I. decora and I. subdichotoma are newly reported here in the paper. I. decora is 2n=22=14m+6sm(2SAT)+2st5 I. subdichotoma is 2n=42=18m+24sm. Three populations of I, ruthenica var. nana were studied. Different Karyotypes for the same species were obtained, namely populations in Lijiang had karyotype of 2n=28m+14sm(2SAT) and those in Zhongdian and in Nixi had 2n=42=30m+12sm(2SAT), 2n=42=36m+6sm(4SAT) respectively. In addition, the characteristics of chromosome morphology, evolutionary relationship among the species in four subgenera, the diversity of chromosome base numbers and the variation of polyploid and aneuploid in Iris were also discussed. 4. Seed Morphological Studies The seed morphology and SEM surface details of 25 Iris species, together with 1 Tigridia species and 1 Sisyrinchium species were studied. The results showed that there was higher consistency among subgenera or sections. In addition, Subg. Limniris evidently differs from Subg. Nepalensis, Crossiris, Iris and Xyridion in seed size, shape and seed surface sculpture. According to our observation, Subg. Nepalensis should be an advanced group. 5. Summary of Medicinal Value Apart from its ornamental value, another important value of the genus Iris is its high medicinal usages. Based on the studies of traditional pharmaceutical literatures, the medicinal values of 7 species of Iris from Yunnan were summarized.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/746
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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云南产鸢尾属植物的引种栽培和分类学研究.沈云光[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2004.20-25
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