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题名: 马先蒿属不同对称性花冠的发生和分化
作者: 蔡杰
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2004
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 王红
关键词: 马先蒿属 ; 列当科 ; 花器官发生 ; 花冠形态分化 ; 花冠对称性
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本文对列当科(Orobanchaceae)马先蒿属(Pedicularts L.)不同对称性的花进行了花器官发生、花冠形态分化以及繁育系统的研究,得到以下结论:1.花器官发生:对代表不同花冠型和不同对称性花冠的4种马先蒿属植物进行了花器官发生研究,发现它们的花部各结构在发生上基本相似。整个花由4轮器官构成,即2枚萼片原基,5枚花瓣原基,4枚雄蕊原基和2枚心皮原基。由于器官抑制作用,花部各器官尤其是花瓣原基和心皮原基在发生的时间、空间上表现出了明显的单轴对称,并最终导致了成熟花冠呈单轴对称。与相关类群金鱼草(Anttirhinum majus L.)和毛地黄(DigitalispurPurea L.)的花器官发生进行了比较,结合分子系统学证据认为马先蒿属可能是唇形目(Lamiales)中联系花冠多轴对称和单轴对称间的纽带之一,随后探讨了花冠对称性变化对植物繁育系统可能产生的影响。2.花冠形态分化:对9种马先篙的上唇进行了形态发育观察,发现上唇花冠的发育过程是马先蒿属植物形成多样化花冠的重要阶段。按分化的过程,将上唇花冠的发育方式分为头盔型、具齿型和具咏型三种类型。马先蒿的花冠从单轴对称转变为左右不对称是上唇发育时异速生长的结果。分子系统树和形态发生学的证据都表明,马先篙的盔下齿是经历了若干次的进化。
英文摘要: To understai id the evolution of floral symmetry in Pedicularis L. (Orbanchaceae) and its biological subsequences, an integrated research of flower morphology, floral ontogeny, and reproductive system was performed. The early floral ontogeny and development of Pedicularis were observed for the first time. A pair of sepal primordia was initiated from floral apex lateral-adaxially, followed by those of 4 stamens, those of 5 petals, and those of 2 carpels successively. It revealed that Pedicularis with four different corolla types shared many similarities in their early developmental stage. Floral monosymmetry, resulted from organ suppression, was expressed in all parts of flowers, especially in petals initiating from abaxially to adaxially and in carpel primodia occupying different positions on the floral apex. A comparison of floral ontogeny among Pedicularis and related taxa Antirrhinum majus and Digitalis purpurea was studied based on developmental and molecular data. We assumed that Pedicularis was one of the key groups that bridged the gaps between polysymmetry to monosymmetry in Lamiales. The possible impact of the change of floral symmetry on their breeding system was also discussed. Nine species were examined to detect their processes of corolla divergence. The development of upper lips was the key phase of corolla diversification. According to the developmental and divergent process, three types of upper lips were recognized, i.e. galeation type, teethation type and rostration type. The development of floral asymmetry due to the allometric growth of upper lips was found in P. superba. Teeth, an accessorial structure of galea, may evolve several times in the light of developmental and molecular analyses. A morphometric analysis was made on species with different symmetrical corollas. It demonstrated that in monosymmetric species, the stigmas were positioned below the anthers, while they were changed to upper position in some asymmetric species. These implied floral asymmetry maybe a mechanism to promote outcrossing.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/742
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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马先蒿属不同对称性花冠的发生和分化.蔡杰[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2004.20-25
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