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题名: 外来逃逸观赏植物肿柄菊的生物生态学特性研究
作者: 王四海
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2004
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 孙卫邦
关键词: 入侵种 ; 生物入侵 ; 肿柄菊 ; 有性繁殖 ; 克隆繁殖 ; 引种
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 入侵生物能从多方面给人类带来危害,生物入侵问题是当前世界关注的热点。目前,人们对生态入侵问题的研究还处于探讨研究阶段,还没有成熟的理论和方法来控制和预防入侵种的危害。在我国,生态入侵的严重性近几年才引起人们的重视,对生态入侵问题的研究也仅限于少数危害性极大的种类,而对那些有潜在入侵危害的外来逃逸种类的研究报道较少。事实证明,一但外来植物产生了较大危害,再研究其有效控制和消除的途径是困难的。因此,从某种意义上来说,对有潜在入侵危害外来种类的深入研究更为重要。本论文在对生物入侵问题的研究进展进行系统分析和综述的同时,以逃逸的外来观赏植物肿柄菊(Tithonia diversifolia A.Gray)为研究对象,探讨其作为观赏植物被引入,至逃逸扩散,最后发展成为入侵态势的过程及机理;预测肿柄菊带来严重危害的可能性,提出防止因其进一步扩散而产生危害的措施。1.肿柄菊的地理分布现状肿柄菊为菊科肿柄属(Tithonia Desf.ex Juss.)植物,该属植物约10种,都原产于中美及墨西哥。肿柄菊是一种优良的观赏、绿肥和防止土壤侵蚀植物,因而被一些国家和地区广为引种。由于人为的引种和引种后的自然逃逸扩散,现肿柄菊已广泛分布于亚洲、南非、太平洋的热带和亚热带地区,在我国的广东、广西、福建、云南及台湾有逃逸种群分布。文献查阅分析表明,在云南肿柄菊最早逃逸的可能时间是20世纪30年代,最初的逃逸地应是云南南部的热带地区。目前,该植物己在云南省9个地州的53个县逃逸生长,地理分布北端已达到24°10'N,分布的海拔变幅100~2000m,分布区集中在云南植物多样性最为丰富的热带、亚热带地区。2.肿柄菊的生物学特性文献记载肿柄菊为一年生草本植物,而在云南逃逸的肿柄菊呈亚灌木状生长,基部多分枝形成丛状,植株高度2~5m,花期11~12月,果实成熟期12~2月,结实量80,000~160,000粒/m2,种子长9~12mm,宽2~3mm,千粒重4.6~6.5g,种子附属有柔毛和冠毛。种子易借助风力或附着交通工具、流水和人畜广泛散播。对勋养镇、普文镇、思茅县城郊、元江县城郊和新平县城郊5个居群的果序直径、每序结实量、结籽率、千粒重、种子长和宽6个结实特性的统计分析表明,五个居群间的各项指标都有极显著差异。在低纬度、低海拔、温度较高地区的居群,其果序直径、每序结实量、千粒重、种子长和宽的数值量偏小,在高纬度、高海拔、温度较低地区的的居群,其数值量偏大。对五个居群采集的种子,在15℃、20℃、25℃、30℃、35℃的温度下进行萌发实验显示,种子萌发率在15℃、20℃、25℃、30℃四个温度条件下都存在极显著差异,在35℃时有显 著差异;不同居群种子的最适萌发温度不一致,最高种子萌发率从高 到低依次为元江(55.5%)、新平(46.5%)、普文(39.0%)、思茅(30.0%)、勋养(29.5%)。肿柄菊能通过靠近地表的茎或倒伏枝进行克隆繁殖,在其5至10月的生长旺季克隆繁殖现象相当普遍,通过这种特别的克隆繁殖方式肿柄菊能形成密实的单优势种群落。肿柄菊为密集型克隆植物,能形成强大的垄断格局。3.月中柄菊的群落特征肿柄菊为单优势种群落,群落外貌表现出①小斑块状散生②长带状集群分布③大面积集群分布三种类型。群落结构的调查分析表明,不同生境和不同气候类型下肿柄菊都能形成单优势种群落,其地上生物量鲜重为22.43~31.49kg/m2;伴生植物种类不多,常为一些适应性强和分布范围广的一、二年生或多年生杂草,伴生植物的地上生物量鲜重为0.79~1.87kg/m2,仅占群落地上总生物量的3.2-6.4%。4.肿柄菊的扩散过程、危害及防除措施肿柄菊的种子主要通过自然力量以及其它生物或非生物因素进行较远距离传播。种子传播到新地区后,首先在其宜生地进行萌发生长,建立植株稀少的小种群,小种群内的植物通过有性繁殖和克隆生长来实现种群的不断扩增,由于肿柄菊较强的克隆繁殖能力,植株密度快速度增加,从而形成密集型的肿柄菊单优势种垄断群落。目前,肿柄菊在云南至少己带来两方面的影响:一是农田周围肿柄菊群落给农业生产带来一定危害,二是大面积生长和不断扩增的肿柄菊将会不断排挤本土植物,威胁着当地丰富的植物多样性。因此在对肿柄菊开展进一步详细研究的同时,应采取相应的措施阻止其种群进一步蔓延:①防止毁林开荒造成的植被破坏给肿柄菊种群的建立提供宜生地;②加强宣传提高人们对外来入侵种危害性的认识:③研究其经济利用的新途径,通过资源的经济利用控制其种群的扩增。
英文摘要: Biological invasion, which was paid attention to in recent years, is a research hot spot, since invasive species could harm human being in many aspects. At present, the studies on biological invasion are at the initial stage in the world. In China, it was not for a long time that people realized the issues of biological invasion. The studies on biological invasion were focused on the catastrophic species. Practically, it was very difficult to remove the invasive species, which had resulted in great harm. In a manner of speaking, the studies on invasive potential of naturalized species were more important. In this thesis, the way and mechanism were studied on the species introduction, naturalization, dispersion and invasive trend of T. diversifolia. 1. Current distribution of T. diversifolia T. diversifolia was native to Mexico and Central America, and was introduced to other countries to serve as ornamental and green manure and to prevent soil erosion. Presently, T. diversifolia was widely spread in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of Asia, Africa and the Pacific region. Field investigations showed T. diversifolia was currently distributed in 53 counties of Yunnan province, China. Ominously, the populations have expanded northward to 24°10'N and established in altitudes of 100~2000m. 2. Biologic attributes of T. diversifolia The naturalized populations in Yunnan were fasciculate shrubs or semi-shrubs, height 2~5m, flowering from Nov to Dec, fruiting from Dec to next Feb, fruit amount 80,000~160,000 achenes/m2, 1000-seed-weight 4.6~6.5g, seed length 9~12mm and width 2~3mm. The light-winged seeds with pubes and pappus could be readily dispersed to the new regions by air, water, vehicles, human activity or livestock. Six fruit characters were analyzed (infructescence size, fruit amount per infructescence, seed set, 1000-seed weight, seed length and width) in five populations (Mengyang, Puwen, Simao, Yuanjiang, Xinping). The result showed that there was significant difference respectively among populations. The value of character was less in the area of lower latitude and elevation with more climate temperature, and more in the area of higher latitude and elevation with lower climate temperature. The seed germination percentages of five populations were determined respectively at 15℃, 20℃, 25℃,3 0℃and 35℃. The result showed that there was significant difference in five populations respectively at 15℃, 20℃, 25℃, 30℃, and difference at 35℃. In addition, the optimum germination temperature of seeds from five populations was different; the highest germination percentage was different (Yuanjiang 55.5%, Xinping 46.5%, Puwen 39.0%, Simao 30.0% and Mengyang 29.5), too. 71 diversifolia has a great capacity to grow clonally. The clonal growth was especially common during rainy reason when adventitious roots and young shoots rapidly emerge from nodes on lower or the prostrate branches. T. diversifolia could easily construct dense community with clonal growth. 3. Community attributes of T. diversifolia T. diversifolia was a dominant plant in its growing area. Community physiognomy of T. diversifolia showed three styles, patch-shaped distribution, belt distribution and large-scale distribution. Its green biomass was 22. 43~31.49kg/m2; however the green biomass of its companions, most of which were annual, biennial and perennial weeds, was 0. 79~1.87kg/m2 only covered 3.2~6.4% of total biomass. 4. Process of dispersal and harm for T. diversifolia Seeds were first dispersed distantly to a new area and population was established with a small quantity of individuals in adaptable habitat. And then, after several growth cycles the population expanded further by dispersal and propagation. At the same time, T. diversifolia increased density of community and sprawled around by clonal propagation. Eventually, large-scale community came into being in diffused regions and squeezed other species. In Yunnan, T. diversifolia could presently bring two disadvantageous effects, endangering farming and biodiversity of plant. Therefore, some measures should be taken to prevent the more diffusion of population, ① effectively protecting natural vegetation not to offer more habitats for T. diversifolia, ②improving public senses for invasive species by public education, ③exploiting and utilizing the species and making it available resources.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/726
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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外来逃逸观赏植物肿柄菊的生物生态学特性研究.王四海[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2004.20-25
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