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题名: 中国云南栽培茶及其野生近缘种的遗传多样性与民族植物学研究
作者: 陈进
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2003
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 裴盛基
关键词: 遗传多样性 ; 民族植物学 ; 等位酶 ; 栽培起源 ; 茶文化多样性 ; 保护
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本研究通过对云南栽培茶及其野生近缘种的形态学、成分化学、等位酶的系统评价,了解本地区茶树遗传多样性状况;通过对云南世居民族布朗、低、基诺、哈尼、傣等茶民族植物学的研究,了解各民族有关茶识别、利用、栽培和加工等方面的传统知识,进而揭示茶对各民族生产、生活、宗教文化等各方面的影响,比较不同民族的茶传统知识的差异。结合已有的资料,对云南茶树种质资源和茶文化保护、茶树栽培起源等问题作了深入的探讨。通过对山茶科(Theaceae)山茶属(CamelliaL.)的3个种和2变种(大叶茶C.sinensis var.assamica,小叶茶Gamellia sinensis var.sinensis,大理茶C. taliensis,德宏茶C.sinensis var. dehungensis,厚轴茶C.crassicolumna)共87份材料的形态学和成分化学评价结果表明:种内形态学性状存在明显的变异。种间比较,所有的叶片和绝大多数花的数量性状的种间差异显著,所有的果实种间性状差异不显著。供试的33个质量性状中,仅树型、芽色、花瓣质地、子房柔毛、花柱数目、雄蕊着生位置和每果子室数等七个性状表现出显著的种间差异。四种成分化学指标变异幅度均较大,其中,咖啡因含量变异幅度最大,变异系数达22.7%;水浸出物含量变异幅度最小,变异系数为13.4%;可溶性多酚、游离氨基酸的变异幅度居中,变异系数分别是20.0% 和18.8%。大理茶和大叶茶的多酚和水浸出物含量显著高于其它种。五个种的咖啡因和游离氨基酸含量无显著种间差异。首次成功地把等位酶技术应用于茶树的遗传多样性评价。共有10个酶14个位点呈现清楚的酶谱,其中9(64%)个位点在种水平上表现出多态(分别是,AAT-3,FUM-1,6PDG-1,G6PDH-1,G3PDH-1,ME-1,PGM-1,PGM-2和SKD-1)。各个种的多态位点百分率P为21.4-50.0%,平均期望杂合度He为0.114-0.218。各个酶的FST值变幅在0.002(FUM)至0.449(ME)之间。所有酶位点FST值为0.046,表明仅4.6%的遗传多样性来源于种间。用等位酶进行种间相似性聚类分析所得格局和通过形态学性状及生化成分形成的聚类图呈现的格局大体一致。形态学、成分化学及等位酶研究结果都显示,云南各地栽培的大叶茶品种仍保留丰富的遗传多样性,多个民族在不同地区长期对大叶茶利用驯化的同时,保护了茶树的遗传多样性。丰富的遗传多样性是云南各民族对世界茶业发展的贡献。被调查五个少数民族在长期的历史过程中积累了丰富的知识并形成了多样的文化。云南少数民族长期用茶植茶,茶和各民族相互作用相互影响,茶对各民族生产生活产生了深刻的影响。主要包括以下几方面:1).生计方面:云南一些民族在长期发展过程中,己形成饮茶嗜茶的习惯,种植茶满足他们自身的消费需求。同时,茶在历史上一直被山区民族用来和外界交换自己所需的物品,以满足他们生计的需求。直到今天,茶仍是很多地区山地村民最重要的经济作物。由于茶对村民经济的重要影响,茶园已被布朗、基诺、哈尼人看成是家庭的重要财产,并规定特定的传承方式。2).精神与社会关系方面:茶对各民族的影响己浸透到精神方面。茶已被地处山区民族人和人、和外界交往的媒介。绝大多数民族都有在重要节日或重要社会活动如婚、丧、建房等用茶叶待客的传统习俗。3).信仰与宗教方面:茶在一些民族的信仰与宗教活动中起着极其重要的作用。4).医药应用方面:茶的医药保健方面的效用也为各民族广泛应用。茶被用于提神解乏、治腹痛、腹泻、解毒、治刺伤、促进伤口愈合、治腮腺炎、治灼伤等多个方面。5).生态环境方面:布朗、基诺、哈尼传统的植茶方式是利用天然森林林窗下种植茶叶。村民在利用传统茶园的同时也保护了这些森林。6).植茶与迁徙生活方式的改变:由于开始种植茶,而茶园无法随人迁徙,这则可能使得这些人逐步由不定耕向定耕过渡。从游耕向定耕的转变无疑会对该民族的社会、经济及生产生活的各个方面产生深刻的影响。五个少数民族在茶的命名、利用程度及利用方法也均存在的很大差异。布朗族应用茶程度最为深刻而广泛;布明人称茶为,“la”,并根据茶叶的颜色、味道和来源不同有不同的名称;茶在布朗人社会交往中起着十分重要的作用;布明族人用茶为医疗保健方面的传统知识很丰富;茶园已成为布朗人家庭的财产的一部分,拥有较多茶地的家庭往往有更高的社会地位。低族人称茶亦为,“la”;低族传统不种茶,茶叶的医药应用、加工方式等知识相对于其它民族较为贫乏;然而茶叶在低族的宗教活动中有着极其重要的作用,低族人已发展出了很多对茶的敬畏,对茶的采摘、饮用等产生了一些禁忌。基诺族和哈尼族称茶为“nuoboo”,两民族也表现出有较为丰富的传统茶知识,茶在这两个民族的社会交往、宗教、药用及茶作为经济作物等方面均有应用。西双版纳傣族历史上不植茶,对茶的利用知识、传统习俗都较其它民族匾乏。傣族称呼茶为,“la”,而“la”最初可能是傣族对所有用植物煮制成的饮料的统称。不同民族传统知识的差异和它们历史上是否栽培茶树及栽培历史的长短似有一定的关联。本研究还记录了五种民族多样的茶加工和制茶方法。本研究还结合云南茶树种质资源特点和保护现状,提出建立古茶园保护区、加强茶树种质资源的迁地保护、注重茶文化多样性和传统知识保护等若干建议。本研究综述了已有和茶树栽培起源相关的考古学、历史记述、语言学、植物遗传学及民族植物学证据。茶树栽培于汉代以前即出现在中国四川。云南及其邻近地区各民族(主要是南亚语系的布朗、低、德昂族等)有可能很早就认识和利用茶树。今天丰富多样的茶树品种则是中华多个民族长期驯化的结果,但茶树栽培起源的确切年代和地点仍有待发现更多新的证据。
英文摘要: The study included an assessment on the morphology, biochemistry and allozyme of tea plants and their wild relatives in Yunnan Province with aim to understand the genetic diversity of tea plants, and an ethnobotanical survey which was to document the indigenous knowledge on the identification, use, cultivation and processing of Camellia tea of the studied ethnic groups( i.e., Bulang, Wa, Hani, Jinuo, and Dai), in order to advance our understanding on how tea plants play roles in local people's daily life, agricultural activities, religions and cultural contexts, as well as the differences among those different groups. By incorporating the existed information, the author has also discussed issues related to the conservation of biocultural diversity of tea plants in Yunnan province and the origin of tea cultivation. The author evaluated the morphology and biochemistry of a total of 87 accessions in the genus Camellia (C. crassicolumna, C. sinensis var. assamica, C. sinensis var. dehungensis, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, and C. talinensis). Great variation of morphological characters was apparent within each taxa. Across the five taxa, all leaf and most flower quantitative characters showed significant differences while all fruit quantitative characters measured did not differ significantly, and, seven (i.e., life form, bud color, petal texture, pubescence on ovary, style number, stamen location and locule per fruit) of the 33 qualitative characters yield significant differences. As a whole, The contents of caffeine, polyphenols, free amino acids and water extract solid showed a relatively high variation. Among which, the caffeine content had the highest variation with CV of 22.7%, water extract solid showed the least variation (13.4%) and content of polyphenols (20.0%) and free amino acids (18.8%) showed intermediate variations. Camellia taliensis and C. sinensis var. assamica had significantly higher content of polyphenols and water extract solid than in the other three taxa, while no significant differences were detected for the content of caffeine and free amino acids. For allozyme study, this was the first report that allozyme study could be rather informative to reveal the genetic diversity of tea plant. Fourteen loci presented good resolution, among which, nine loci (64%) were polymorphic in each taxon (AAT-3, FUM-1, 6PDG-1, G6PDH-1, G3PDH-1, ME-1, PGM-1, PGM-2 and SKD-1). The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) for each toxon was 21.4-50.0%. Mean heterozygosity per locus (He) varied 0.114-0.218. FSt value indicated that only 4.6% of the variations could be ascribable to genetic differences among taxa. Some patterns of genetic relationships among the five taxa, revealed by allozymes, were also exposed by the result of clustering of the morphological and biochemical characters. Both the morphological and biochemical information and patterns resulting from the allozyme study have demonstrated that there were great variations existed in Camellia tea in Yunnan Province. Historical domestication on C. sinensis var. assamica has been conducted by multi-ethnic groups in a wide range of geographical locations in this area while diversity is maintained in local flora. The maintaining of the rich genetic diversity of tea plants by the ethnic minority people in this area would be a significant contribution to the development of tea industry worldwide. The five ethnic groups have accumulated extremely rich indigenous knowledge and thus create a diverse culture on tea use. Due to the long time interaction between tea and local people, tea has played important roles in local peole's daily life and agricultural activities, which included, 1). Substances: Local people have used to drinking tea, thus, tea cultivation could meet their own consumption. Historically, tea has been taken as an item by those mountainous ethnic groups to exchange for food and salt as well as other substances with people in lowland basin areas. Ever, today, tea production is one of the most important sources for cash generating in many areas in Yunnan and tea garden has been traditionally considered as an important property to the household. 2). Psychic spiritual aspects and social relations: Tea has been taken as a media to promote the communication and contact with outsiders. Tea has been considered as an item that could not be replaced or omitted in traditional festivals and important social activities. 3). Religion and beliefs: Tea has played important roles in many religion activities. 4). Medical use: Tea has been widely used to healthcares by different ethnic group, such as, refreshment, bellyacke, diarrhoea, detoxify, biting, parotitis, cut and burn, etc. 5). Ecological aspects: Tea trees were traditionally planted under natural forests thus protects large-scale tea-forests. 6). Settlement style: The tea cultivators previously were those shifting cultivators who historically have no fixed settlements. Tea cultivation made them changes their lifestyles to fixed settlements. There were also obvious differences among different ethnic groups on local name of tea, tea uses and tea preparations. Bulang people have accumulated the richest knowledge on tea use. Bulang people call tea as "la" and classify and name tea into different subgroups based on color, taste and source of tea plants. Tea has played a very important role in Bulang's social relation and social activities. Bulang people also traditionally use tea for their healthcare, and accumulated relatively rich knowledge on this aspect comparing to other ethnic groups. In Bulang village, traditional tea garden has been considered as a part of the household's property, thus, those families who hold large tea garden often got good respects from their neighbors. Wa people name tea also as "la". Wa people traditionally did not cultivate tea and their traditional knowledge on tea use is relatively poor. However, tea has been widely used in Wa's religious activities and Wa people have established worships to tea. Jinuo and Hani people both call tea as "nuobao". This two groups also showed their rich indigenous knowledge on tea which is related to tea use in social relations, religions, healthcare and cash crop. Dai people in Xishuangbanna traditionally did not cultivate tea and their indigenous knowledge on tea is rather limited. Dai people call tea as "la", and "la" might be initially the name used by Dai for all the boiled water with different plant material inside when boil. The differences on indigenous knowledge on tea was, to some extend, a reflect to the history of traditional tea cultivation. This study also recorded the diverse traditional tea processing and tea preparation of the five ethnic groups. The author also presented a proposal for the establishment of old tea garden protected area in order to enhance the conservation of tea germplasm as well as indigenous knowledge and tea culture. The study reviewed the information/evidences on archaeology, historic records, linguistics, plant genetics and ethnobotany concerning the origin of tea cultivation. Tea cultivation occurred in Sichun province at least before Han dynasty (206 BC. - 220 AD.). Indigenous people (especially Bulang, Wa and Deang people who belong to Austro-Asiatic languages) in Yunnan province appear to start to gather tea leaves from their surrounding natural jungle very long time ago. Today's rich tea varieties were the contributions from the domestication by several nationalities in China. The definite conclusion for the origin of tea cultivation requires new evidences.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/714
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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中国云南栽培茶及其野生近缘种的遗传多样性与民族植物学研究.陈进[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2003.20-25
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