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题名: 几种热带植物的化学生态学研究
作者: 宋启示
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2003
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 杨崇仁
关键词: 草果枷朋姗tsaok-ko ; 黑褐姜黄Curcuma phaeocoulis ; 阳春砂仁Amomum villosum ; 化学成分 ; 抗氧化活性 ; 化学它感潜力 ; 榕树 ; 榕小蜂 ; 专性互惠共生 ; 化学吸引 ; 化学生态机制
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 植物次生代谢产物是植物在与环境和其它生物相互作用的长期进化过程中逐渐形成的,这些植物小分子化合物在提高植物自身保护和生存竞争能力、协调与环境关系上起作用,具有重要的生态学意义。植物与动物、植物与植物、植物与微生物间的通讯联系和相互作用是以次生代谢物质为媒介的。因此,以揭示植物次生代谢产物在植物生命过程中的意义,及其在植物与环境相互作用中的功能为目的的植物化学生态学日益成为植物生命科学研究的热点。本论文以姜科和桑科几种云南热带植物为对象,在化学成分研究的基础上,试图从不同的角度探索植物化学生态学的研究方法,探讨植物与植物间,以及植物与昆虫间的化学联系,揭示自然界中植物与其它生物间相互作用的分子基础。榕树为热带雨林的关键树种,在热带森林生态系统中起着十分重要的作用。已发现榕树与榕小蜂之间存在专一性互惠共生关系,一种榕树仅有一种相应的榕小蜂为其传粉,榕树与榕小蜂之间相互关系的研究已成为热带生物学研究的热点。本论文建立了大量富集榕果挥发性成分的方法,创建了野外粘性陷阱法和室内化学信息物风洞检测法,检测榕果挥发性成分的诱蜂活性。在建立试验方法的基础上,选择西双版纳热带雨林的重要树种对叶榕(Ficus hispida)与榕小蜂之间的化学通讯进行研究。试验研究结果表明,对叶榕隐头花序对榕小蜂有化学吸引,且这种吸引只存在于处于开花授粉时期的接收花序。对叶榕的接收花序只对其授粉榕小蜂Ceratosolen solmsi脚archali有吸引作用,而对其它种类的榕小蜂无作用。对叶榕雌性及雄性接受花序的挥发性成分与已授粉或寄生的花序有较大差异。而雌雄接受花序及叶则存在一些相同的挥发性成分。对叶榕隐头花序从开花到授粉后或榕小蜂寄生后,其挥发性成分的组成有明显的动态变化,一些成分消失或减少了,而另一些成分则增加了或新产生出来了。挥发性成分适时的动态变化不仅是对叶榕授粉生理过程不同阶段对传粉者提出需求的信号物质,也是提供专属榕小蜂寻找和识别适合产卵及授粉的花序的化学信息。隐头花序授粉或寄生后消失或减少的挥发性成分,如芳樟醇、a一松醇、a-甲基苯乙烯、2,6-二甲基-2,7-辛二烯-1,6-二醇和2,6-二烯十一醛等,可能是吸引榕小蜂的活性化合物。对雌性和雄性接受花序的二氯甲烷提取物分离组分的诱蜂活性检测和活性组分的Gc洞s分析鉴定,进一步推定芳樟醇及其衍生物是对叶榕专一地吸引其传粉榕小蜂的主要活性化合物。这种化学吸引的专一性就是榕树与榕小蜂专性互惠共生关系形成的化学基础。从云南特产的药食两用植物草果(Amomum tsao-ko)的果实中分离到13个化学成分,经鉴定,其中3个为结构类型不同的新化合物,即:草果素(tsaokoin)为具有双环壬烷新骨架的新颖结构类型化合物;草果酮(tsaokone)为新的二苯庚烷类化合物,草果贰(tsaokoside)为新的半日花烷型二菇配糖体。在分离到的化合物中,以(一)表儿茶素的得率最高。采用自行设计的改良Leather和Einhellig法,进行种子萌发试验和幼苗生长试验,观察草果提取物及化学成分对其他植物生长的影响。在lmg/m1浓度下,草果素和(一)表儿茶素对苦菜种子萌发的抑制率分别为19.3%、13.7%;(一)表儿茶素对苦菜幼苗根和总生物量增长的抑制率分别为100%和40.7%;(一)表儿茶素对含羞草幼苗根和茎生长的抑制率分别为61.8%、34.5%。结果表明,草果对其它植物有化学它感潜力,主要活性物质为草果素和(一)表儿茶素。(一)表儿茶素、原花色素C一1、原花色素B一2和草果酮还有显著的抗脂质过氧化作用,在42mg/L浓度下,脂质过氧化抑制率在Fe2++Cysteine诱导实验中分别为95.6%、94.0%、93.9%和95.9%,均略高于维生素E的活性。草果所含大量的酚类化合物是其自我保护的物质基础。黑褐姜黄(Curcuma-phaeocaulis)为西双版纳热带海拔800米左右的河边砂地特有的姜科植物。在自然生态系统中,黑褐姜黄往往形成连片的单优植物群落,几无杂草和其它植物掺入其中。黑褐姜黄根茎主要成分为挥发油和倍半萜类化合物。从黑褐姜黄根茎氯仿提取物中得到10个化合物,其中4个主要成分鉴定为羲术环氧酮(zederone)、姜黄二酮(curdione)、羲术二醇(zedoarodiol)和β-谷甾醇。黑褐姜黄根茎和叶精油主要成分为羲术醇及其衍生物。羲术环氧酮和姜黄二酮对苦菜、含羞草和稗的种子萌发和幼苗生长有显著的抑制作用。获术环氧酮10 OPPm浓度对苦菜幼苗茎和生物量增长的抑制率分别为52.1%和28.5%,对含羞草幼苗根和茎生长的抑制率分别为37.8%和23.4%;姜黄二酮对含羞草幼苗根、茎和生物量增长的抑制率分别为80.4%、76.7%和30.7%,对苦菜幼苗根、茎及生物量增长的抑制率分别达到43.1%、40.8%和41.3%。姜黄二酮对稗幼苗茎和生物量增长的抑制率在20ppm就分别达到38.7%和43.9%。姜黄二酮对单子叶植物稗的抑制作用较强,而对双子叶植物含羞草和苦菜的抑制作用则较弱。结果表明黑褐姜黄对其它植物有化学它感潜力,获术环氧酮和姜黄二酮为主要的化学它感物质。黑褐姜黄根茎和汗卜挥发油对苦菜和含羞草种子萌发和幼苗生长亦均有显著的抑制作用。阳春砂仁(Amomum villosum)为重要的常用中药,云南西双版纳是我国阳春砂仁的主要栽培地区。阳春砂仁可抑制周围的其它植物,往往形成单优群落。若与其他经济植物混种,亦会导致其它植物的死亡。阳春砂仁根挥发油以松油-4-醇、a-及β-旅烯、月桂烯、a-及γ-松油烯等为主要成分。生物活性试验结果表明,阳春砂仁根挥发油在10ppm浓度对苦菜种子萌发有显著的抑制作用。阳春砂仁根的氯仿和正丁醇提取物对苦菜和含羞草的幼苗生长亦有显著的抑制作用。阳春砂仁的挥发性成分,以及其他成分对周围植物均有强烈的化学它感作用。鉴于姜科植物在热带生态系统中,以及在我国传统中医药中的重要作用,本论文对姜科植物化学成分及其生物学活性研究进展进行了综述。
英文摘要: Plant secondary metabolites have been formed through the interactions between plants and the environment (biotic and abiotic) in the long term evolution. Secondary metabolites are essential to plants in self protecting, competiting with others and coordinating the relation with the environment. They are ecologically important materials that mediate the communication and interaction between plant and plant, plant and animal. Based on the chemical studies on several tropical plants from Zingiberaceae and Moraceae, and the methodological studies in different fields of chemical ecology, this thesis will try to understand the chemical communication or chemical interaction intra-plants, and inter plant and insect, and then to elucidate the chemical mechanisms of some mutualistic and allelopathic phenomenon in nature. The species-specific mutualism between fig and fig wasp is a model of coevolution reached the extreme in nature. A fig species is pollinated exclusively by a corresponding species of fig wasp only. Based on the fig volatile compounds collecting methods, and the assay of the attractiveness of volatiles to fig wasps in the fields (Sticky Traps Method) and indoors (Wind Funnel Method) developed during studies, the chemical communication between fig and fig wasps was explored at first time in the world. Dichloromethane extracts of the receptive syconium (the female flowers in blosoom) of male and female plants of, and petroleum ether extract of the receptive syconium of female plants of Fiats hispida (FH) showed significant attractiveness to its pollinating wasps, Ceratosolen solmsi marchali (CSM), while the volatile extracts of the pollinated and parasited syconium did not demonstrated such attractiveness. The bioassay indicated that the syconium of FH were chemically attractive to the pollinating wasps only at female flower stage, they lost the attractiveness after being pollinated or parasited. The receptive syconium of FH were not attractive to other fig wasps but CSM only. The chemical attraction of the syconium to fig wasps was species-specific. In other words, chemical signal from fig tree was decisive in the host locating process of fig wasps. This specific chemical attraction is the chemical mechanism of the species-specific mutualism between fig tree and fig wasp. GC/MS analysis revealed that the volatile compound constitutions of the receptive syconium were different from those of the pollinated or parasited ones of FH. From receptive stage to post-pollination or post-parasitization stage, some volatile compounds of the syconium decreased or disappeared, while other compounds increased and some new constituents emerged. The differences in volatile composition of syconium at different developing stage could be the chemical basis for the fig wasps to search and recognise the suitable syconium as oviposition and pollination sites. Linalool and its derivatives, cx-terpeneol and cc-methyl benzyl ethylene, the volatile constituents of the syconium that decreased in quantity or disappeared after pollination or parasitization, could be the attractants to the fig wasps. Bioassay on the fractions of the dichloromethane extracts of the receptive syconium indicated further that linalool and its derivatives are the specific attractants to the pollinating fig wasp of FH. Ammomum tsao-ko, or tsaoko, a plant of ginger family, is a Chinese traditional medicine and a spice. Its diversified chemical constituents have mutiple biological activities, including anti-oxidation and allelopathy. Seven phenolics and six other compounds, including tsaokoin, a nonane with a novel bicyclic skeleton [4,3,0], tsaokone, a new diarylheptanoid and tsaokoside, a new labdane type diterpene glycoside, were isolated from the fruits of the plant. (-)Epicatechin was the major compound of this plant. At 1 mg/ml, tsaokoin and (-)epicatechin showed significant 19.3% and 13.7% inhibition respectively against the germination of Brassica integrifolia (Bi), (-)epicatechin showed 100% and 40.7% inhibition respectively against the increases of root length and seedling biomass of Bi, (-)epicatechin showed 61.8% and 34.5% inhibition respectively against the growth of roots and stem of Mimosa pudica (Mp). These results indicated that tsaoko has allelopathic potential on other plants, and its major allelochemicals are tsaokoin and (-)epicatechin. (-)Epicatechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin C-l, tsaokone showed significant anti-peroxidative activities. At the concentration of 42 mg/L, the peroxidation inhibiting rate of the above compounds were 95.6%, 94.0%, 93.9% and 95.9% respectively in Fe2+ + Cysteine experiment, which were slightly larger than that of vitamine E. (-)Epicatechin and its polymers were the major anti-oxidative compounds, they are chemical basis for the self protection of tsaoko. Curcuma phaeocaulis (CP), a traditional Dai medicinal plant of ginger family, suppresses other plants and usually forms one species plant community in nature. Volatile compounds are the major chemical constituents of the rhizome of CP. Twelve compounds, mainly sesquiterpene lactones, were isolated from the chloroform extract of the rhizomes of CP. The main volatiles of the rhizomes and leaves were zedoaronol and its derivatives. Volatiles from the rhizomes and leaves showed inhibitory activities against the germination and growth of Bi and Mp. Zederone and curdione, the major compounds from the rhizome, demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against the germination and seedling growth of Bi, Mp and Echinochloa crusgalli (Ec). At 100 ppm, Zederone showed 52.1% and 28.5% inhibition respectively against the increase of stem length and seedling biomass of Bi, 37.8% and 23.4% inhibition respectively against the increase of root and stem lengths of Mp; curdione showed 43.1%, 40.8% and 41.3% inhibition respectively against the increase of root and stem lengths, and seedling biomass of Bi, 80.4%, 76.7% and 30.7% inhibition respectively against the increase of root and stem lengths, and seedling biomass of Mp. Curdione showed 38.7% and 43.9% inhibition respectively against the increase of stem lengths and seedling biomass of Ec even at 20 ppm, which means curdione has stronger allelopathic activity against monocotyleton than dicotyledon. The above results indicated that CP may exert allelopathy on other plants by releasing harmful volatiles into its surroundings. Zedoaronol and curdione are the major allelopathic compounds from the rhizomes of CP. The rhizomes of Amomum villosum (AV) inhibited the germination and the seedling growth of Bi and Mp significantly. At 10 ppm, the. essential oil of the rhizomes of AV showed significant 11.7% inhibition against the germination of Bi. The bioassay results indicatded that AV has strong allelopathic potential on other plants and the main active compounds are volatiles. (R)-4-methyl-l-(l-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen- l-ol, a,(3-pinene and a,y-terpinene, the major compounds of the rhizome volatiles, are the potential allelopathic compounds of AV. Studies on the chemical constituents of Zingiberaceous plants and their biological activities were reviewed in this dissertation, for their important roles in the tropical ecosystem and the traditional medicine of China.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/684
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几种热带植物的化学生态学研究.宋启示[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2003.20-25
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