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题名: 富宁藤、思茅藤、山玉兰和挖耳草的化学成分研究
作者: 曹建新
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2003
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 罗士德
关键词: 化学成分 ; 富宁藤 ; 思茅藤 ; 山玉兰 ; 挖耳草
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本论文对四种植物的化学成分进行了研究,包括两种夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)植物一富宁藤(Parepigynum funibgebse Tsiang et P.T.Li)和思茅藤(Epigynum auritum Tsiang et P.T.Li),一种木兰科(Magnoliaceae)植物-山玉兰(Magnolia delavayi Franch.),一种菊科(compositoe)植物一挖耳草(Carpesium cernuumL.)。应用硅胶、反向硅胶(RP-8和RP-18)、葡聚糖凝胶(Sephedax LH-20)、大孔树脂等分离材料及多种分离技术,结合现代波谱分析、化学方法,从上述四种植物中分离鉴定了55个化合物,其中新化合物20个。结构涉及强心贰、C21幽体、倍半萜、二萜、三萜、木脂素、酚性化合物、神经酰胺(Ceramide)类化合物、糖和生物碱等十个类型。新化合物中的八个强心贰及其试元为首次在自然界中发现的五元不饱和内醋环被氢化的类型,CZI出体中的五个为D-环插氧的结构新颖的类型。分别探讨了这两类化合物的生源转化途径。综述了1993-2003年间发表的从植物中分离得到的新的强心贰类化合物。一、两种夹竹桃科植物的化学成分研究夹竹桃科(APocynaceae)是热带植物区系中的一个重要的科,由于在植物区系和医药上的重要性,本科在植物学上或化学上均进行过较多研究。分类学家们也曾试图将该科的强心贰成分在各系统中作出相应合适的安排,但由于化学数据的缺乏,也由于一个理想的植物系统的建立的复杂性,这一安排未能得到满意结果。我们对中国夹竹桃科植物进化最高族-思茅藤族(Epigyneae)中的两种植物:单属种植物富宁藤及思茅藤属(Epigynum Wight)中的中国独种植物思茅藤的化学成分进行研究。力求为夹竹桃科的分类提供一定的化学依据。从富宁藤中分离鉴定了10个强心贰,全部为新化合物,其中8个是五元不饱和内酷环双键被氢化的产物,该类型强心试为自然界中首次得到,为富宁藤的单属种的分类学地位提供了一定化学依据。并探讨了该植物中分到的两类强心甙之间的生源转化途径。在化合物的鉴定过程中,摸索了大量水解条件及高效液相条件,使一直受立体异构困扰难以得到解析的几个强心贰化合物的结构得到最终解析。从思茅藤中分离鉴定了17个化合物,包括8个C21出体,一个三菇,四个糖及其衍生物,两个神经酞胺类化合物,一个木脂素和一个β-胡萝卜贰。其中新化合物8个。但未分离得到强心贰。结合水解条件,探讨了该植物中分离得到的两类D一环插氧的新类型的CZI多体之间的生源转化途径。二、山玉兰的化学成分研究木兰科(Magnoliaceae)植物包括15属约250种,我国有11属约1 10种,主要分布于云南、广西、广东等三省。地理分布及起源的研究表明:木兰科的现代分布中心是我国云南、广西、广东。木兰属(MagnoliaL)是木兰亚族(Subtrib.Magnoliinae)7个属中最原始的属,也是木兰科中种类最多而分布最广的属,我国云南、广西、广东既是木兰属种类分布最多的地区,又是该属原始种类分布集中的地区,是木兰属现代分布中心,也可能是发源中心。山玉兰(Magnolia动性delavayi Franch.)是木兰属中最原始的种群,主要分布在云南,对其化学成分研究未见报道,其分类学地位吸引我们对其化学成分进行研究。此外,山玉兰的药用价值也吸引我们对其化学成分进行研究。从该种中共分离鉴定了21个化合物,包括12个木脂素,3个倍半菇,1个二萜,三个酚试类化合物和p一谷幽醇及其贰,其中,化合物(13)是一个新的愈创木烷型倍半萜。三、挖耳草的化学成分研究近年来对菊科(Compositae)天名精属(Carpesium L)植物化学成分及生理活性的研究结果表明:该属所含的吉玛烷型倍半菇内酷具有多种生理活性。如天名精内酯(carpesialactone)对中枢神经有麻痹作用;从金挖耳(Carpesium divaricatum)中分到的crdivins对人体肿瘤细胞有细胞毒作用;从尼泊尔天名精(CarPesium nePalense)中分到的naPalolides有抗细菌、真菌和治疗肝炎的作用等。挖耳草(CarPesium cernuumL)是菊科天名精属植物。味苦,性凉。有清热解毒、消肿的功能。用于咽喉肿痛、风火牙痛、痈肿疮毒。民间把本种与金挖耳(Carpesium divaricalum)当作同一种使用。但对其化学成分研究还未见报道。我们对该种植物化学成分进行研究,从中分离鉴定了7个化合物,包括4个吉玛烷型倍半菇内酷,1个阿朴菲型生物碱和p一谷凿醇及其贰。其中,化合物(1)是一个新的吉玛烷型倍半萜内酯。四、综述综述了1993年至2003年间发表的新的强心贰类化合物108个,总结了这些化合物的来源、结构、分子式和名称。
英文摘要: This dissertation dealt with the chemical constituents of the natural resources of four plants, Parepigymtm funingense and Epigynum auritum (Apocynaceae), Magnolia delavayi Franch. (Magnoliaceae) and Carpesium cernuum L.(Compositae). From above four plants, 55 compounds were isolated and identified, among which 20 compounds, including 10 cardiac glucosides and their aglycones, 6 pregnane glucosides and their aglycone, 1 triterpenoid saponin, 2 sesquiterpenoids and 1 trisaccharide derivative, were elucidated to be new ones. These new compounds included 8 novel cardiac glucosides and their aglycones, which had unusual cardie aglycone without the common olifmic bond in ring-E and were firstly observed from natural resources. These new compounds also included 5 novel pregnane glycosides, which had the oxygenated ring-D. In the course of compounds were identified, a large number of conditions of hydrolysis and HPLC were explored to make it to be possible to explain the structures which were always misunderstanded by their configurations. The biosynthesis pathways of the cardiac glucosides and the pregnane glycoside were discussed respectively by the assistance of hydrolysis research. Finally, the new cardiac glycosides from the natural resources of plants from 1993-2003 were reviewed. Chapter 1. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of two Apocynaceae Species Apocynaceae was an important family in the flora. Cardiac glycosides was an important bioactive constituent of Apocynaceae. Scientists had tried to find the distribution regularity of cardiac glycoside in this family. But the arrangement had not got a satisfy result for the lack of chemical data and for the complication to establish an idea plant system. Epigyneae was at the highest position in the evolution system of Apocynaceae. Parepigynum funingense was an endemic species in Epigyneae. Epigynum auritum was the only species distributed in China in the Epigynum Wight of Epigyneae. We chose the two species to research their chemical constituents and try to find some clues in the taxonomy. From the aerial part of Parepigynum funingense, 10 new compounds were isolated. Chapter 2. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Magnolia delevayi Magnolia delevayi was a primitive species belonging to the family Magnoliaceae. It is a traditional Chinese herb and has been used to treat gastric and abdominal distending pain, vomiting and cough. Up to now, the chemical constituents of this plant have not been reported. Its unique taxonomic position and medical values attracted us to investigate its chemical constituents. From the alcohol extract, 21 compounds were isolated and elucidated, in which compound 13 was new. Chapter 3. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Carpesium cernuum Carpesiun cernuum (Compositae) was a species belonging to genus Carpesium L.. This genus had many bioactities in anti-tumor, anti-fungi and others. Up to now, the chemical constituents of this species have not been reported. Its bioactivities attracted us to investigate its chemical constituents. From the alcohol extract, 7 compounds were isolated and elucidated, in which compound 1 was new. Chapter 4. Review New cardiac glycosides published in 1993-2003 were reviewed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/674
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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富宁藤、思茅藤、山玉兰和挖耳草的化学成分研究.曹建新[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2003.20-25
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