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题名: 马先蒿属斗叶群的系统发育-兼论云南大王马先蒿的遗传多样性
作者: 李文丽
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2003
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 王红
关键词: 马先蒿属斗叶群 ; 系统发育 ; 大王马先蒿 ; 遗传多样性
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 在钟补求(1963)的系统中,马先蒿属斗叶群(Pedicularis Cyathophora grouP)包括4个系,6个种,4个亚种和1个变种。在马先蒿属(Pedicularis)中,它是一个十分特别的类群,本群所有植物叶柄基部膨大并结合为斗状,集中分布在东喜马拉雅地区;马先蒿属中的四种花冠类型在本群植物中均有代表。本文从形态学、抱粉学、分子系统学,生物地理学等方面综合研究了斗叶群的系统发育,并对云南大王马先蒿的遗传多样性进行探讨。1、形态分类和地理分布通过野外调查和标本馆工作对斗叶群中6个种(P. cyathophylloides, P. rex, P. THAMNOPHILLA, p. superba, P. connata, P. cyathophylla)的主要花部特征:花色、花冠;主要植株特征:体高、叶片长度、叶片宽度、裂片宽度、裂片齿的宽度,花冠管长度、盔部宽度、叶斗状体长度和宽度等特征进行了观察、测量,进行统计分类。统计分类的结果和斗叶群马先篙内各个种的分布模式相关,并显示花冠管长度在斗叶群内各种之间存在显著差异。虽然P.rex C.B.Clarke和P.rex C.B.Clarke subsp.lipskyana各项形态统计特征基本一致,但要将它们合并还需更多的证据。2、抱粉学通过光镜和电镜对斗叶群内的6个种和所选外类群的2个种(P. dichotolna和P.pentagona)进行了抱粉学研究。抱粉萌发孔类型可以分为2种类型:二合沟和三合沟。所观察的抱粉外壁纹饰可以分为:微粗糙型(microscabrate),微具皱型(micromgulate),微网状脉型(microreticulate)和微蜂窝状型(microfoveofate)四种类型。本属内较原始的三沟型萌发孔在本群中缺失。结合花冠型的进化趋势推测:二合沟类型为较为进化的萌发孔类型;微具皱型和微粗糙型是较为原始的抱粉外壁纹饰,微蜂窝状型花粉外壁纹饰为较进化的类型。抱粉学证据支持本群在马先篙属中为较进化的类群。3、分子系统学ITS(iniemal transcribed spacer)序列的分支分析结果支持斗叶群为一个单系类群。叶是较花冠型更为稳定的分类特征。在所研究的种类中,短管和有咏的种类各聚为一枝。推测花冠的咏相对于花管的长短变化来说可能是一个祖征。4、云南大王马先篙居群遗传多样性用分子标记PAPD对大王马先篙P.rex在云南五个居群的遗传多样性进行研究。分析结果表明:大王马先篙的遗传多态性随着纬度的升高而增加,丽江和中甸的遗传多态性最高,其次为大理、昆明和武定;遗传距离和地理分布直接相关。针对大王马先篙中甸三个亚居群的遗传多样性分析也支持这样的变化趋势。
英文摘要: In the system of Tsoong, the Cyathophora, which contains four series, six species, four subspecies and one variety, is an almost unique group in the genus Pedicularis because of the leaf bases connating and fusing into a cup-shape structure at the node. All the four corolla types of Pedicularis occur in this group. It is endemic to the east Himalaya. In this paper, the phylogeny of Pedicularis Cythophora group was comprehensively investigated by means of gross morphology, palynology, molecular systematics, with special reference to the genetic diversity of P. rex in Yunnan. 1 Morphologly variation and distribution On the basis of extensive field observation, literature and herbarium specimen survey, the morphological characters of each species of the group were described in detail, especially focusing on the corolla and vegetative characters. Based on the plant heights, leaf lengths and widths, leaf segment widths, leaf segment sawtooth widths, corolla tube lengths, corolla galea widths, leaf cup-shaped structure lengths and widths, the character statistics show that the distribution pattern of the five observed species in Pedicularis Cyathophora group is in relation to the character variation. Also, the statistics show that the corolla tube lengths are a distinctive character among the five observed species. Although P. rex and P. rex subsp. lipskyana are the same in many character statistics, the combination of them needs further data. 2 Palynology Based on the LM and SEM observation, the pollen characters of eight species, six species in the Cyathophora group and two outgroup species (P. pentagona and P. dichotomd) were summarized. They were distinguished into 2 major apterture types (bicolpate and syntricolpate) and 4 subtypes of exine sculpture (microscabrate, microrugulate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The primitive tricolpate apterture type does not occur in this group. In relation to the floral evolution trend in the genus, the results of this experiment imply that the microscabrate and microrugulate exine sculptures are primitive, microfoveolate exine sculpture is advanced, and the bisyncolpate pollen type is advanced. In particular, the palynology data support that the Cyathophora group was advanced in the genus. 3 Molecualr systematics Cyathophora group was surpported as monophyletic by the results inferred from analyses of nuclear ITS sequences. The leaf characters are more stable than the floral characters. The results inferred from ITS sequences showed that taxa with short-tubed corolla and beaked galea were the two unique clades. The beaked corolla probably is the primitive character when it is compared with the tube length of the corolla. 4 Genetic diversity of P. rex in Yunnan The genetic diversity of five populations (including three subpopulations) of P. rex in Yunnan was studied using the RAPD markers. The results showed that the genetic diversity of -P. rex is very high. The more the latitude elevates, the more the genetic diversity is. The geographic distance has the effect on the genetic distances. The separate analysis of the three subpopulations of P. rex in Zhongdian also supports this conclusion.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/648
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
马先蒿属斗叶群的系统发育-兼论云南大王马先蒿的遗传多样性.李文丽[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2003.20-25
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