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题名: 云南无量山报春花种质资源及特有报春的保护生物学研究
作者: 薛大伟
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2003
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 张长芹
关键词: 报春花属 ; 无量山 ; 引种 ; 细胞学 ; 景东报春 ; 保护生物学 ; 种下分类
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本论文对云南无量山报春花属种质资源作了进一步调查,并对分布于无量山:的部分报春花种类进行了引种驯化初步研究和细胞学研究;选取特有种景东报春(P.intejacens Chen)为代表,进行保护生物学研究;同时针对论文过程中遇到的问题,对景东报春的种下分类问题进行了初步探讨。1.无量山报春花属种质资源状况通过调查发现,无量山现有报春花17种(包括变种和亚种)。无量山报春花植物在垂直带上集中分布于半湿润常绿阔叶林和中山湿性常绿阔叶林地区,在水平分布上,东、西坡存在差异。其生境类型可分为岩生型和林缘、旷野型2大类。同时,对5种报春花的生物学特性和观赏特征进行了归纳。2.5种野生报春引种驯化的初步研究选取了景东报春、无草脆茹报春(P sinoexcapa)、毒叶报春(P. sinoexcapa)、叉梗报春(P.divaricata)和滇北球花报春(P.denticulata ssp.sjbideticilata)5种野生报春进行了引种驯化的初步研究。通过种子萌发、人工授粉(均以景东报春为例)和活体栽培实验及生物学特性观察,结果显示景东报春的种子在引种地具有较高的萌发适应性,异花授粉的结实率高,活体在栽培地的土壤适应性也较好,能正常开花且有的花期提前。3.5种无量山报春花的细胞学研究对无量山分布的报春花属植物中的5种(含1亚种1变种)进行了细胞学研究。结果如下:波缘报春,2n=2x=22=2Om(2SAT)+2st,着丝点端化值(T.C.%)为57.51%;无草脆茹报春,2n=2x=22=20m+2sm,T.C.%值为57.78%;滇北球花报春,2n=2x=22=20m(4SAf)+2st,T.C%值为56.79%;光叶景东报春,2n=2x=18=2m(ZSAT)+6sm(4SAT)+10st,T.C.%值为67.47%;景东报春,2n=2x=18。上述5种植物的染色体数目和核型均为首次报道。4.景东报春的保护生物学通过分析其生态生物学特征表明,景东报春生存竞争能力差,只能生长在其它物种所不能生存的环境中。景东报春3个居群用13个ISSR引物在67个样品中共扩增出106条带,多态带比率(P)为75.47%。居群内的平均Nei遗传多样性(HE)为0.2368,整个居群的遗传变异(HT)为0.3205。居群间的基因分化系数(GST)为0.2613,香农多样性指数分析表明:居群间的遗传分化为25.09%。居群间的遗传一致度(1)平均值0.8357士0.033。这表明景东报春的3个居群具有很高的遗传多样性,几乎和同属植物中的广布种相当,因此景东报春属于特有种中具有很高遗传多样性的一类植物群体。对景东报春的保护应同时考虑就地保护和迁地保护两个方面,最适宜的保护措施是保护它们的生存环境,避免人为的破坏;同时,迁地保护也是非常必要的,两年的引种实验表明景东报春的迁地保护是可以成功的。5.景东报春的种下分类初探从形态学、ISSR分子标记和ITS区序列分析的结果表明景东报春的种下分类问题比较复杂,作者认为在景东报春种下暂时可不设变种。
英文摘要: In this thesis, the germplasm resources of genus Primula L. are further investigated in Mt. Wuliangshan of the SC Yunnan, China. The preliminary studies on the acclimatization of 5 wild species of Primula are reported, and the cytology of 5 species are studied. The conservation biology of P. interjacens, a narrowly endemic primrose-is also studied. In addition, the infraspecific taxonomy of P. interjacens is discussed briefly towards the problem found during the thesis work. 1. The germplasm resources of genus Primula in Mt. Wuliangshan Based on the investigation, there are 17 species (including subspecies and variety) of wild primroses. These primroses distributed mainly semi-humid and mid-montance humid evergreen broad-leaves forest in the' altitudinai zone, and horizontal, distribution is also differential between east and west slopes of Mt. Wuliangshan. There are; 2 kinds of primrose habitat type on this mountain: saxicolous type and forestedge-field type. In addition, the biological characteristics and ornamental values of 5 species are summarized. 2. Preliminary studies on acclimatization of 5 wild Primula species We made preliminary studies on acclimatization of 5 wild primroses, i.e., P. interjacens, P. sinoexcapa, P. rubifolia, P. divaricata and P. denticulata ssp. sinodeticilata. According to the experiments on seed germination (P. interjacens as sample), artificial pollination (P. interjacens as sample), cultivation and observation of biological characteristics, the results show that the seeds of Primula have high germination adaptability and the plants have good adaptability to the soil in cultivation zone, cross-pollination could give high fruitage, and 5 primrose bloom normally and the flowering time of some species is advaced. 3. Cytology study of 5 species The karyotypes and the centromeric terminalization value (T.C.%) of 4 species of the genus Primula from Mt. Wuliangshan are listed as follows: P. sinuata Franch. (2n=2x=22=20m(2SAT)+2st; T.C.%=57.51%), P. sinoexscapa C. M. Hu (2n=2x=22=20m+2sm; T.C.%=57.78%), P. denticulate ssp. sinodenticulata (Balf. F. et Forrest) W. W. Smith (2n=2x=22=20m(4SAT)+2st; T.C.%=56.79%) and P. interjacens var. epilosa C. M. Hu (2n=2x=18=2m(2SAT)+6sm(4SAT)+10st; T.C.%=67.47%). And the chromosomes number of P. interjacens var. interjacens is 2n=18. In addition, the probably original basic chromosome number of the genus Primula are discussed briefly. 4. Conservation biology of/! Interjacens The analysis of ecological and biological characteristics of P. interjacens is showed that its poor competitive ability may be one of the main causes in restricting the distribution of this species. For 3 remaining natural populations and 67 individuals of P. interjacens, with 13 ISSR primers, 106 loci were generated with 75.47% being polymorphic (P). The average gene diversity was estimated to be 0.2368 within populations (HE), and 0.3205 at the species level (HT). The coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (GST) was 0.2613 as estimated by partitioning of the total gene diversity. The Shannon's diversity index analysis partitioned 25.09% of the total variation between populations, the mean of genetic identities (I) is 0.8357 ± 0.033. The results show that 3 populations of P. interjacens have high levels of genetic variation which are close to that of the widespread species in genus Primula but have relatively low genetic differentiation, thus P. interjacens belongs to the subset of endemics possessing high levels of genetic variability. Its in situ and ex situ conservation should be both considered, the most suitable strategy for the conservation of P. interjacens is the protection of its habitat. In addition, the 2 year introduction shows ex situ conservation could succeed. 5. The primary study of infraspecific taxonomy of P. interjacens Through the analysis of morphological, ISSR makers and ITS sequence, the results show that the infraspecific taxonomy of P. interjacens is more complex. The author is inclined that var. epilosa may be combined to var. interjacens temporarily.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/642
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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云南无量山报春花种质资源及特有报春的保护生物学研究.薛大伟[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2003.20-25
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