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题名: 金平者米拉祜族药用民族植物学研究
作者: 淮虎银
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 裴盛基
关键词: 金平 ; 者米 ; 拉祜族 ; 草医 ; 传统医药 ; 药用植物 ; 民族植物学
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 传统医药的价值已经引起全球范围的普遍关注。然而目前许多民族民间传统医药知识科学界尚未涉足就已经面临丧失的危险,金平者米拉祜族传统医药就是其中之一。金平拉祜族原被称为"苦聪人",是我国较为典型的热带森林民族,亦是拉祜族中出林定居最晚的一部分。本项研究的目的是采用民族植物学的研究思路和l方法,以金平者米拉祜族自治乡的拉祜族民间草医为定点研究对象,对当地拉祜族民间草医常用药用植物及其相关的医药实践和知识进行研究。结果表明:1.者米拉祜族民间草医常用药用植物中,没有种类非常突出的科.和属,相当一部分科和属仅有一种植物被作为药用(分别占66.67%和89.80%),而且属的分布型以热带分布属为主(74.20%);药用部位以叶和根为主(35.22%和32.08%);次生植被中药用植物的数量呈增加趋势。这些特点与他们居住的热带山地森林环境和资源特点相一致。治疗皮肤病、关节炎、跌打损伤等疾病是当地拉祜族民间草医的优势,而且这些疾病在当地是最常见和易发疾病,对应的药用植物种类数也以治疗这些疾病的为最多。由此可见,疾病的易发程度与治疗该疾病的医药知识的丰富程度之间可能存在着一定的相关性。不同拉祜族草医之间在所使用的药用植物种类上存在着一定程度的差异,尤其在不同年龄层次的草医之间这种差异更加明显。草医之间的交流程度是影响草医之间异同的主要因素。2.拉祜族草医一般按照导致疾病的原因将疾病分为三类,即外病、内病和"鬼神病"。草医在行医实践中经常使用"咒语"和举行某种治病"仪式",具有典型的萨满教医药学特征。3.目前传统医药已经不是当地拉祜族唯一的就医渠道,民间医药知识的生存和发展面临着严重的挑战。导致拉祜族传统医药知识丧失的原因主要有内因和外因,如生活方式的变化、生活环境的变化、外来文化的影响、思想观念的变化等。4.通过结合有关资料对者米拉祜族常用药用植物功用的比较分析,发现绝大多数民间药用植物的功用有其科学的内容,并且不同文化背景下药用植物的利用情况对评判该植物的功用有非常重要的参考价值,并以此为依据,对者米拉祜族民间草医常用药用植物的潜在价值进行了定量评判,初步选择出数种可供进一步开发研究的用于治疗皮肤疾病和骨折的药用植物。5.者米拉祜族民间草医所用药用植物在治疗皮肤疾病和骨折等方面具有特别意义,在开发研究中应该受到必要的重视。根据者米拉祜族草医常用药用植物的性质和当地资源状况,可以将其分为四类:绝对保护类(I)(2种)、优先保护类(II)(5种)、开发和保护并重类(III)(98种)和适度开发类(IV)(11种)。绝大多数药用植物属于保护和l开发利用并重类(III)。6.本文结合者米拉祜族民间医药知识的特点和现状,对进一步研究拉祜族传统医药提出了一些建议。收集和整理民间传统医药知识仍然将是者米拉祜族传统医药研究的重要内容,在注重基础性研究的同时,也应结合拉祜族传统医药的优势,进行相应的开发研究。但是,在进行开发利用研究过程中,不仅要结合所涉及的药用植物资源的特点,同时也要考虑到当地群众的利益,否则将不利于拉祜族传统医药的发展和保护。最后,结合拉祜族民间医药的研究,本文对民族传统医药研究中普遍存在的一些问题进行了初步讨论。
英文摘要: Traditional medicine has gained much attention from all over the world since the last two decades. However, much traditional medicinal knowledge of indigenous people has not yet been investigated by science, and these traditional medical knowledge is being lost, such as the traditional medicine of the Lahu people in Zhemi of Jinping, Yunnan Province. The Lahu people in Jinping County used to be called "kucong" by outsides before 1978. They were the last group of the Lahu people living in pristine tropical forests, they started settled village life in 1957. The purpose' of this study is using ethnobotanical methods and approaches to document the medicinal plant resources used by the local Lahu healers and the characteristics of Lahu traditional medicinal knowledge. The main results from the study are summarized as follows: 1. Medicinal plants used by the local Lahu healers are distributed in 57 families and 98 genera which are typically tropical distribution taxas, and its interesting to see that only one species of each family and genus is being used as medicine (66.67% and 89.80%), the main areal-types of genera belong to tropical types (74.20%); the local healers mainly use leaves and roots as medicine (35.22% and 32.08%), and large number of medicinal plants are from secondary vegetation. These characteristics relate to the local environment and resource availability. The local healers are specially good at treating skin disease, arthritis and broken bones, which are common diseases in the study area and the number of medicinal plants used to treat the diseases mentioned is very high. There is a correlation between the commonality of the disease and abundance of the medical knowledge on treating the disease. There are some differences between healers in the medicinal plants they commonly use, the differences are more distinct between different healers of different ages. Based on observation, it is found that the degree of communication among healers is the determinant factor affecting their differences in using medicinal plants. 2. The local Lahu healers classify diseases into three major groups according to the factors leading to disease, "nei-bing"(inner disease), "wai-bing"(external disease), and "gui~shen-bing"(disease caused by ghost). In their medical practices, the healers always use prayers and rituals while herbals are given. This is a typical characteristic of the Shamanism'. Traditional medicine is not the only choice for Lahu people to see a doctor today. Traditional medicine is facing a serious challenge from introducing of modern medicine, new life styles, changes in environment, outside cultures, and changes in thinking are the main factors that have caused erosion of traditional medicine. 4. Most of the medicinal plants used by local healers are said to be effective according to literature study. The data collected on medical plant uses under different cultural backgrounds have a very important meaning in judging the potential medical value of plants used by local healers. Based on this point of view, a quantitative method has been developed and been used to evaluate the potential value of medicinal plants used by the local healers. The results show that seven species used by the local Lahu healers to treat skin problems and ten species used to treat broken bones are found to be potential for further chemical and pharmacological studies. The sustainability of the medicinal plants has been discussed. The results show that all the medicinal plants used by the local Lahu healers can be divided into four groups in term of management and conservation of medicinal plants. Group (I) must be protected absolutely, Group (II) should be protected rather that be used, Group (III) can be used along with protection and Group (IV) may be used in a reasonable way. Most of the medicinal plants used by the local Lahu healers belong to Group (III). Some suggestions have been provided according to the characteristics of the medicinal plants used by the local Lahu healers and the status of Lahu traditional medicine. Collection of medical information and documentation of medical experiences from the folk healers are the main work for further medical ethnobotanical studies. Meanwhile, some applied research on traditional medicinal plants should be paid more attention for economic development of Lahu community. Some common issues in medical ethnobotanical study have been discussed as well in this paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/628
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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