Tree plantations displacing native forests: The nature and drivers of apparent forest recovery on former croplands in Southwestern China from 2000 to 2015
Hua, Fangyuan1,3; Wang, Lin2; Fisher, Brendan4; Zheng, Xinlei5; Wang, Xiaoyang2; Yu, Douglas W.2,6; Tang, Ya5; Zhu, Jianguo2; Wilcove, David S.7,8
2018-06-01
Source PublicationBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION
ISSN0006-3207
Volume222Pages:113-124
AbstractChina is credited with undertaking some of the world's most ambitious policies to protect and restore forests, which could serve as a role model for other countries. However, the actual environmental consequences of these policies are poorly known. Here, we combine remote-sensing analysis with household interviews to assess the nature and drivers of land-cover change in southwestern China between 2000-2015, after China's major forest protection and reforestation policies came into effect. We found that while the region's gross tree cover grew by 32%, this increase was entirely due to the conversion of croplands to tree plantations, particularly monocultures. Native forests, in turn, suffered a net loss of 6.6%. Thus, instead of truly recovering forested landscapes and generating concomitant environmental benefits, the region's apparent forest recovery has effectively displaced native forests, including those that could have naturally regenerated on land freed up from agriculture. The pursuit of profit from agricultural or forestry production along with governmental encouragement and mobilization for certain land uses-including tree planting-were the dominant drivers of the observed land-cover change. An additional driver was the desire of many households to conform with the land-use decisions of their neighbors. We also found that households' lack of labor or financial resources, rather than any policy safeguards, was the primary constraint on further conversion of native forests. We conclude that to achieve genuine forest recovery along with the resulting environmental benefits, China's policies must more strongly protect existing native forests and facilitate native forest restoration. Natural regeneration, which thus far has been grossly neglected in China's forest policies, should be recognized as a legitimate means of forest restoration. In addition, social factors operating at the household level, notably the pursuit of profit and conformation to social norms, should be harnessed to promote better land-cover, biodiversity, and environmental outcomes. More generally, for China and other countries to succeed in recovering forests, policies must clearly distinguish between native forests and tree plantations.
KeywordBiodiversity Forest Policy Ecosystem Services Natural Regeneration Social Norms Tree Planting Reforestation
DOI10.1016/j.biocon.2018.03.034
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000434745900012
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/61413
Collection中国科学院东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室
Affiliation1.Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Conservat Sci Grp, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, England
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, Key Lab Plant Divers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China
4.Univ Vermont, Gund Inst Environm, Rubenstein Sch Environm & Nat Resources, Environm Program, Burlington, VT 05405 USA
5.Sichuan Univ, Coll Architecture & Environm, Chengdu 610000, Sichuan, Peoples R China
6.Univ East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England
7.Princeton Univ, Woodrow Wilson Sch Publ & Int Affairs, Program Sci Technol & Environm Policy, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
8.Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Hua, Fangyuan,Wang, Lin,Fisher, Brendan,et al. Tree plantations displacing native forests: The nature and drivers of apparent forest recovery on former croplands in Southwestern China from 2000 to 2015[J]. BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION,2018,222:113-124.
APA Hua, Fangyuan.,Wang, Lin.,Fisher, Brendan.,Zheng, Xinlei.,Wang, Xiaoyang.,...&Wilcove, David S..(2018).Tree plantations displacing native forests: The nature and drivers of apparent forest recovery on former croplands in Southwestern China from 2000 to 2015.BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION,222,113-124.
MLA Hua, Fangyuan,et al."Tree plantations displacing native forests: The nature and drivers of apparent forest recovery on former croplands in Southwestern China from 2000 to 2015".BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 222(2018):113-124.
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