豆科黄华族(Thermopsideae)的系统演化及植物地理学研究
其他题名Systematics and biogeography of The Tribe Thermopsideae (Papilionaceae)
王恒昌
学位类型硕士
导师孙航
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
关键词黄华族 蝶形花科 系统发育 植物地理学 古地中海起源
摘要本文对蝶形花科Papilionaceae黄华族Thermopsideae进行了形态-地理学分析,在此基础上进行了分子生物学研究,并结合黄华族近缘类群对其系统发育进行了新的探讨。得到如下结果:形态和分子分析的结果都表明北美西部特有类群Pickeringia属的统位置远离黄华族的其它类群,而与槐族十分靠近,它极有可能是槐族的一支;中亚特有成分沙冬青属Ammopiptanthus可能与非洲的坡塔里亚属有一定的联系,这为研究中国植物区系与非洲植物区系的关系提供了线索。可以确定黄华族的这两个属为孤立的、较早分化出的类群。东亚-北美间断分布的黄华属Thermopsis在分支图上表现为多系,其在北美的类群和中国-日本亚区的类群相近;其在中国-喜马拉雅、青藏高原的类群和中国-喜马拉雅特有成分黄花木属Piptanthus及地中海区特有成分臭豆属Anagyris靠近。这很可能说明黄华属的这两类具有不同的来源。这个发现对正确认识黄华属的系统进化和区系发生具有重要意义。结果也验证了臭豆属和黄花木属近缘;北美东部特有成分赝靛属Baptisia与黄华属中所谓的“原始的互生花类”近缘。臭豆属、黄花木属以及黄华属、赝靛属四者在黄华族中相对另二属来说更靠近,它们可能是族中较晚分化出来的。中国-喜马拉雅、青藏高原亚区是本族物种分化相对剧烈的地区。特别是黄华属和黄花木属在此地出现了很多特化的年轻类群。这表明喜马拉雅的隆起和青藏高原的抬升所引起的气候寒化和旱化可能是物种演化的主要动力。从分布上看,黄华族跨越欧亚、北美和非洲,是一个北温带的小族。但由于其6个属中5个为地区特有型,且相互之间星散地分布,又包含一个东亚-北美间断分布的属,其分布式样较好地反映了晚白垩纪至早第三纪以来北温带植物群的演化趋势。古植物学及形态和分子证据,地理分布等综合表明,黄华族是一个第三纪的孑遗类群,它的发生和发展与晚白垩纪以来古地中海地质历史事件最相关,最有可能是古地中海起源的,起源地在古北大陆的南岸。而起源时间早于早始新世。由于晚白垩纪至早第三纪以来北半球发生了深刻的地质历史变化,它的起源地变得支离破碎,各类群的分布中心更有可能只是物种的保存地而非起源中心。黄华族的分布格局因此更可能是物种向现代栖息地退缩的结果。研究还表明大西洋陆桥和白令陆桥在黄华族植物的交流中发生了作用。隔离分化和迁移、散布的机制在本族的分布格局形成中是同时存在的。几种不同的分析方法得到了应用和比较,并获得了较多有价值的信息。分子生物学可能是重建系统发育和阐明生物地理学的有效的方法。
其他摘要Systematics and biogeography of Thermopsideae (Papilionaceae) have been researched from the view of Morphology-Geography, and a phylogenetic discussion has been emphasized on the tribe based on the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The essential points are summarized as follows: The systematic position of the uncertain Rocky Mt. endemic Pickeringia is discovered more remote from other elements of the tribe, perhaps it is reasonable to place it in the tribe Sophoreae complex; The center Asian Ammopiptanthus is proved to be more close with the South African Podalyria of the tribe Podalyrieae, this discovery will provide a clue someway for the study of the relationship between the flora of China and Africa. It is certain that the two genera are the isolated ones and differentiated earlier. The molecular phylogenetic analyses shows that the E. Asian and N. American disjunct Thermopsis is a paraphyly. One group between N. America and Sino-Japanese forest subkingdom allied each other, Another one in Sino-Himalayan, Qinghai-Xizang plateau is close to Piptanthus and Anagyris. It indicated that the two groups of Thermopsis had probably different origins. This is significant for recognize the systematic evolution and flora origin of this genus. Our analyses also reprove that the Mediterranean endemic Anagyris allied with the Himalayan endemic Piptanthus, and did the eastern America endemic Baptisia with the so-called "primary alternative flowered groups" of Thermopsis. All these four taxa are allied closer than another two isolated genera of Thermopsideae mentioned above, they should differentiated later. With the uplift of Himalayas and Qinghai-Xizang plateau caused by the late Tertiary orogeny in Asia and the uplift of Rocky Mts. in western N. America, the humidity and temperature conditions among these regions changed profoundly, and they became the principal impetus of specialization process esp. in Piptanthus and Thermopsis. Thermopsideae is a small north temperate group, but whose distribution areas span among the continents of Eurasia, N. America and northern Africa. Of all its six genera five are endemic in their respective definite floristic areas, and another belongs to the Asia and N. America disjunct type. So it would be a very typical important element for the biogeographic study of north temperate plant groups since Upper cretaceous to Paleogene. The evidences of fossil, morphology, molecular and distribution have a consensus view which is proved that Thermopsideae is a relics of Tertiary. Its origin and evolution are very close to the events related with the Tethys since Upper Cretaceous. The tribe had a Tertiary Tethyan origin probably, its birthplace was near' the southern Laurasia and had a mid-latitude source; It's origin time is probably before Paleogene but after late Cretaceous when there was a so-called boreotropical flora happened in the N. Hemisphere. It seems that the Atlantic land bridge and the Bering land bridge had ever effected the plant exchange between Eurasia and N. America and so on. The distribution pattern of the tribe is probably effected by both of Vicariance and Migration mechanism and as a result they receded to their modern habitant areas. Some systematic and biogeographic theories and methods are applied to the study of the tribe and some valuable information are available. It shows that molecular biology evidences are very conducive to the systematics reconstruction and phytogeography explanation of plant.
页数81
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/606
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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王恒昌. 豆科黄华族(Thermopsideae)的系统演化及植物地理学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2000.
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