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题名: 中国青冈亚属叶表皮及叶结构分析、地理分布和系统演化
作者: 罗艳
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 周浙昆
关键词: 青冈亚属 ; 叶表皮 ; 叶结构 ; 地理分布 ; 系统演化
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 该文对国产青冈亚属植物的现代地理分布、叶表皮微形态和叶结构特征进行了全面系统的分析和研究,并佐以其他形态学和细胞学方面的资料对其进行了分支分析,得到以下结果:1.表皮微形态特征具有重要的分类学价值和系统学意义.该亚属植物具有特征统一和稳定的叶表皮特征,是一个自然的类群.2.叶结构特征具有重要的分类学意义和十分突出的系统学意义.青冈亚属具有与其近缘类群栎亚属和三棱栎属相区别的叶结构特征,是一个自然的类群.3.地理分布:分析和统计了青冈亚属在其植物分布区内个地区的分布情况.认为中国南部、西南部和中南半岛北部,即印度支那植物地区,是青冈亚属现代分布的分布区中心.
英文摘要: Quercus subg. Cyclobalanopsis (Oerst.) Schneid. is an important constituent of broad leaved evergreen forests in subtropical regions of Asia. It contains 122 species distributed primarily within the Tropical Asia (Indo-Malaysia) phytogeographic province. 77 species are attributed to China, yet little are known about their evolution and systimatics. The goal of this thesis is to integrate newly acquired leaf epidermis ,leaf architecture and modern distribution information and conduct a clasdistic analysis based on morphological and palynological data in order to provide a reasonable view of the phylogeny of Cyclobalanopsis from China and interpret the relationship between Cyclobalanopsis and Quercus. The essential points were summarized as follows: l.Leaf epidermis:The characters of leaf epidermis were found to be of the most significance in distinguish taxa or groups and interpreting evolutionary relationships. The foliar trichomes are very important characters in identifying species of Cyclobalanopsis. As a result of obsveration under LM and SEM, eight types of folia trichomes are recognized: Simple-uniseriate, Solitary, Papillae, Stellate, Fused-stellate, Stipitate-fasciculate, multiradiate and Jellyfish-like. The first one type fall into glandular trichomes and the last 7 non-glandular trichomes or intermadiate trichomes. Papillae and Petaloid are characteristic to Cyclobalanopsis. Foliar trichome types therefore not only have important' taxonomic value in Cyclobalanopsis but also with phylogenetic significance. Trichomes derived from Papillae, and Papillae are.the pedomorphism of trichomes. Stellate came from unicellar long Solitary .So these trichomes would have following evolutionary interrelationships: Non-trichomes→Papillae→Solitary→Stellate. The complicate trichomes are regards as apomorphic features. More hair-arms take form more complicate types of trichomes by means of various fusion. More Stellate are fused to form Fused-stellate, Stipitate-fasciculate by basal fusion,and then Multiradiate as the divergence of the arms increased. So the complicate trichomes seem to reflect an evolutionary sequent of increased complexity. Trichome-bases are also an important feature to distinguish taxa and divide sections. Epidermal cell wall outline, stomatal outline and frequency are also useful in distinguishing taxa and implicating ecolutionary relationships. 2.Leaf architecture: The leaf architecture of 48 species of Cyclobalanopsis, 3 species of Quercus, and 1 species Trigonobalanus was surveyed in current work using clearified leaves. It is found that leaf architecture analysis may clarify the relationships within Cyclobalanopsis. The major categories of leaf architecture of Cyclobalanopsis observed in this work are as following: leaf venation type, leaf margin, tooth type, marginal ultimate venation, areoles and veinlets and so on. It must emphasized that of all these characters, the venation type, the tooth type, areoles and veinlets are the most stable and useful for systimatics. In this study 7 types of venation and 3 types of tooth are newly named based on the behavior of secondaries, but specialize in Cyclobalanopsis. Leaf architecture is main basis to divide subsections. Leaf architecture should be of following phylogenetic relationships: venetion: secondaries joined together in arches→secondaries upturned without forming prominent marginal loops leaf margin: entire→ semiteeth→other teeth areoles: imperfect→well developed veinlets: branched→simple without branches 3.Phytogeography: The geographical distribution of most live species of Cyclobalanopsis in the world are discussed in detail .Acording to Takhtajan's view point of ttie reginaKzation of the world flora and WU Zhengyi's view point of the regionalization of China, the number of species in every region of China and world are counted. The ranges of a number of species were analyzed to develop biogeographical and phytogenetic context for the diversity within subg. Cyclobalanopsis. The south of China and the north of the Indo-Chine Peninsula showed the highest species diversity and may be considered as the two centers of diversity. A number of species in Malaysia were observed to have some plesiomorphic characters, and this region may be considered the center of origin and a key area of endemism. On the island of Borneo, the area of Kalimantan is the richest in endemic species and these resemble fossil species in contrast, The endemic species from Hainan and Taiwan are more derived. The endemic species of Yunnan represent a mixture of neoendemics and paleoendemics. The formation of patterns of endemism in Cyclobalanopsis is due primarily to geographical isolation and the complex history of climatic and geological changes. And alscnwe have discussed vicariance of Cyclobalanopsis: Q.glaucct & Q.schottkyana, Q. gilva & Q. delavayi, Q.sessifolia & Q. augustinii are vicariance species between Sino-Japan and Sino-Himalaya. 4.Cladistic analysis: A cladistic analysis of taxa in the subg. Cyclobalanopsis is made in this study. As a monophyletic group, Cyclobalanopsis has its characteristic features. Trignobalanus (T.doichangiensis) was selected as outgroup ,and 3 species of evergreen subg. Quercus as sister groups comparison after a careful consideration. 34 characters had been used in this study. Four principles: outgroup comparison, fossil evidence ,commonality principle and ecological adaptations ,were used for polarization of the characters. A data matrix constructed by 44 ingroups ,1 outgroup and 34 characters. The data matrix was implemented in PAUP 3.1.1. A parsimonious cladogram (Lenth=226) was used as the bases in discussing the systematic relationships in Cyclobalanopsis. According to the cladograms, five sections are founded. The clade of one with complicate trihomes is the most primitive one, which is an isolated clade, possesses more plesiomorphic characters and is close to outgroup. The clade of one toothed and with solitary hairs is the most advanced one, which is situated on inner position and possesses more apomorphic characters. 6.The following conclusions may be reached by author: (1)Based mainly on cytology, leaf epidermis and architecture data, Cyclobalanopsis and evergreen members of Quercus are similar to each other in choromosome number, trichom.es, stomata and venation. Therefore, cytology, leaf epidermis and leaf architecture support the treatment of Cyclobalanopsis as a subgenus of Quercus. (2)According to leaf epidermis architecture data and the result of cladistic analysis, 52 species of Cyclobalanopsis from China are divided into five sections and eleven subsections: Sect. 1 Helferiana Menits.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/600
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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