|其他摘要||Since the 1950s, synthetic dyes have caused serious environmental problems with significant side-effects on human. There has been a reevaluation of the safety of synthetic dye products, and much attention have been focused on natural plant dyes and pigments. This has lead to an increasing demand for natural colorants on the world market. However, the Traditional Coloring Knowledge (TCK) has not yet been investigated systematically and is in danger of being lost. Using ethnobotanical methods, a systematical survey of traditional plant-coloring knowledge was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province of China. The study included a survey and assessment of dyeing plants traditionally used by local people, traditional coloring technology (preparation of coloring liquids, coloring methods, use of mordants, color control, etc.)，comparing differences in TCK of ethnic groups, development and social function of TCK, conservation, and sustainable utilization of TCK. We also discusses issues related to fastness of plant-dyes and the potential value of natural plant colorants, and analyzes and briefly reviews the history of coloring in China, cultural value of tattoo and coloring teeth.
We surveyed and interviewed ten local ethnic groups in a systematic investigation of the plant species used for coloring in the Xishuangbanna area. Ninety plant species belonging to 70 genera and 46 families were identified as sources of natural dyeing substances. Among these, 66 species were recorded as being used for coloring for the first time; 51 (56.67%) are wild, and 39 plants are cultivated, semi-cultivated and naturalized species. According to origin of dyeing plant species, there are 60 (66.67%) native species, and 30 (33.33%) exotic non-native species in the study area. The study shows that native plants play an important role in dyeing practice among local people. In addition, ethnic people have been cultivating valuable exotic non-native species of dye plants in home gardens and swidden-fields so as to increase dyeing plant resources. These traditional practices are best approaches for ex-situ conservation of important economic plant species, and have revealed that plants play an indispensable role in intercultural exchanges.
In the Xishuangbanna area, local ethnic groups have accumulated an extremely rich traditional knowledge on the use of dye plants and have thus created unique cultures in the use of plant dyes for coloring food and other materials. All of the plants used for dyeing can be classified into four types according to their use: 39 are used traditionally by locals as edible pigment plants, 36 as material dyes, 8 as beautifying-body plants, and 27 for chewing and for coloring teeth. We identified that 15 different plant parts used for colorant production, such as leaves, stem, fruits and the whole plant. Single plant organ and combination of more than one organs even the whole plant could be used as colorant substances. In addition to coloring fabrics, dyeing plants are also used for coloring foods, beverages, fine arts, furniture, skin and teeth. Eleven different colors and tones have been obtained by coloring foods, fibers and other dyed materials. The same color with different shades can be obtained from different plants, and different parts of the same plant can produce different colors. By Mixing different plants or different parts of the plant, and adding mordants and assistant substances in extracted liquid, it is possible to produce multiple colors. Traditional management practices have resulted in a sustainable use of dyeing plant resources and biodiversity conservation. We also found that in traditional coloring practices, seven natural and two chemical mordants, and some assistant substances are used in the region to bind dye to fibers, to maintain the fastness and brightness of the colors, and to obtain various colors. Redyeing, overdyeing, mordanting, and adding assistant substances are the key know-how of color control in local coloring practices.
Xishuangbanna has 13 ethnic groups and a rich biocultural diversity. Among different ethnic cultures, there are distinctive differences in their natural coloring cultures. These are exhibited through their traditional knowledge in identifying and utilizing dyeing plants, reasons for coloring, various colors of the dyed materials, parts of plants used, and traditional dyeing teckniques. Over time, human interactions with plants has created specific coloring cultures. TCK reflects perfectly the dynamic interaction between ethnic people and plants, and its origin and development possesses distinctive characteristics of the particular ethnic culture and the flora of the region.
The study showed that, to some degree, local people of Xishuangbanna have already developed and preserved a nearly perfect system of TCK on the use of dye plants, which was identified by using a high diversity of dyeing plant species, a wide variety of colored materials, abundant colors of dyed products, and the use of environmentally friendly mordants and assistant substances, as well as a more systematic dyeing method and skilled color control. Dyeing plants are an important part of biodiversity, are valuable plant resources, and they play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the regional flora, human well-being and social development. Moreover, dyeing plant resources have great value in conservation and sustainable use. TCK, a multipurpose component of ethnic culture, is of great value for modern human society. This survey on colorant-yielding plants used by indigenous people provides a scientific understanding of dye plant resources and local knowledge in the study area, and contributes to the search for new natural and healthy food additives, fabric dyes, cosmetics and medicinal colorants. These are potential valuable for livelihood improvement, regional economic development, inheritance of ethnic culture, and biodiversity conservation.|