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题名: 西双版纳传统染色植物之民族植物学研究
作者: 张国学
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-01-12
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 裴盛基
关键词: 民族植物学 ; 染色植物 ; 食用色素植物 ; 传统染色知识 ; 色彩文化
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 自20世纪50年代以来,合成染料产生的环境污染问题和对人体健康的危害,引起了人们的高度关注和警觉,天然植物染料的安全性、可靠性又被重新认识,成为现代人类社会回归自然的一个重要内容。目前传统染色知识尚未得到系统研究和调查,面临大量流失和消亡的危险。论文应用民族植物学原理和方法,于2003年至2006年对西双版纳传统植物染色知识进行了系统调查和研究,主要研究内容涉及调查和评估传统利用的染色植物资源、传统染色技术(染液制备、染色方法、媒染剂的使用、颜色调控等)、传统染色知识的多样性与比较民族植物学、传统植物染的发生发展与社会功能等。结合现有资料,对染色坚牢度、植物着色剂的发展前景、中国植物染色历史、染色植物与色彩文化之间的关系、染齿纹身的文化意义等问题进行了分析和讨论,并对传统染色植物使用现状及相关传统知识的流失状况进行了评估分析,提出了保护和传承传统植物染色知识的若干建议。 通过对西双版纳10个民族的深入调查,系统性地查清了西双版纳民族民间传统利用染色植物的多样性,调查记载了染色植物90种,隶属于46科70属;共有66种植物被首次记录用于着色目的。其中野生植物51种占56.67%,栽培、半栽培及逸生植物39种;当地原生植物60种,占66.67%;外来植物30种,占33.33%。研究表明,野生植物和原生植物在当地人的染色实践中起着重要作用;西双版纳各民族有引种外来优良染色植物以丰富本土染色植物资源的传统实践,这种传统实践对生物多样性保护具有积极意义,也证明了植物在文化交流过程中的桥梁作用。 西双版纳民族民间积累了丰富的植物染色知识,传统利用的染色植物按其用途可分为:食用色素植物39种,物用染料植物36种,美体用染色植物8种,涅齿植物27种。15种植物组织、器官或植物产物被用来提取着色物质,植物的单个部位、多个部位组合,或者多种植物的部位组合,甚至整株植物都可以用来提取着色物质。染色植物被广泛用于染食品、饮料、纤维、鱼网、工艺品、家俱、美饰肌肤和染齿,能够染成11种不同的颜色。同一颜色物质可以从不同的植物中提取,同一植物的不同部位可以得到不同的颜色;不同植物混合以及在植物的提取液中加入媒染剂或助染剂可获得不同颜色的染色效果。多元化利用方式对于植物多样性的可持续利用和保护具有积极意义。在传统染色实践过程中,当地人使用7种天然媒染剂、2种化学媒染剂和若干助染剂以增强染色坚牢度、维持色彩的明亮度和创造更丰富的颜色,并采取重染、复染、媒染、添加染色助剂4种方法调控被染物的颜色。 西双版纳世居民族多达13个,拥有丰富而独特的生物与文化多样性。研究表明,不同民族的色彩文化既有相当高的多样性,同时具有明显的差异性。这种差异性和多样性表现在染色植物的使用种类、染色目的、被染物色相、染色植物使用部位及传统染色技术等方面,呈现出丰富而多样化的特点。传统染色知识具有丰富多彩的文化特征,集中反映了人与植物多样性相互作用的动态表达过程,是人类理性思考和创造性实践的卓越成果,其发生、发展过程具有民族文化和生物地理区系的双重特征。 研究表明,西双版纳民族民间基本形成了一套较为完整的传统植物染色知识体系,主要表现为染色植物种类丰富、被染物种类多样、被染物色谱比较齐全、选择使用环境友好型的天然媒染剂和助染剂、染色技法独特、颜色调控技术比较成熟等。染色植物资源是生物多样性的重要组成部分和重要的资源植物,维护着各地植物区系的完整性,对人类的生存和发展有重要意义,具有极高的利用和保护价值。传统染色知识作为民族文化的重要组成部分,具有多种用途和功能。研究、开发传统染色植物,有助于寻找新的天然、安全、健康的食品添加剂、纺织品染色剂、化妆品着色剂、药品着色剂等,能促进地方特色产品开发、区域经济发展、民族文化传承和生物多样性保护,值得大力支持和推动。
英文摘要: Since the 1950s, synthetic dyes have caused serious environmental problems with significant side-effects on human. There has been a reevaluation of the safety of synthetic dye products, and much attention have been focused on natural plant dyes and pigments. This has lead to an increasing demand for natural colorants on the world market. However, the Traditional Coloring Knowledge (TCK) has not yet been investigated systematically and is in danger of being lost. Using ethnobotanical methods, a systematical survey of traditional plant-coloring knowledge was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province of China. The study included a survey and assessment of dyeing plants traditionally used by local people, traditional coloring technology (preparation of coloring liquids, coloring methods, use of mordants, color control, etc.),comparing differences in TCK of ethnic groups, development and social function of TCK, conservation, and sustainable utilization of TCK. We also discusses issues related to fastness of plant-dyes and the potential value of natural plant colorants, and analyzes and briefly reviews the history of coloring in China, cultural value of tattoo and coloring teeth. We surveyed and interviewed ten local ethnic groups in a systematic investigation of the plant species used for coloring in the Xishuangbanna area. Ninety plant species belonging to 70 genera and 46 families were identified as sources of natural dyeing substances. Among these, 66 species were recorded as being used for coloring for the first time; 51 (56.67%) are wild, and 39 plants are cultivated, semi-cultivated and naturalized species. According to origin of dyeing plant species, there are 60 (66.67%) native species, and 30 (33.33%) exotic non-native species in the study area. The study shows that native plants play an important role in dyeing practice among local people. In addition, ethnic people have been cultivating valuable exotic non-native species of dye plants in home gardens and swidden-fields so as to increase dyeing plant resources. These traditional practices are best approaches for ex-situ conservation of important economic plant species, and have revealed that plants play an indispensable role in intercultural exchanges. In the Xishuangbanna area, local ethnic groups have accumulated an extremely rich traditional knowledge on the use of dye plants and have thus created unique cultures in the use of plant dyes for coloring food and other materials. All of the plants used for dyeing can be classified into four types according to their use: 39 are used traditionally by locals as edible pigment plants, 36 as material dyes, 8 as beautifying-body plants, and 27 for chewing and for coloring teeth. We identified that 15 different plant parts used for colorant production, such as leaves, stem, fruits and the whole plant. Single plant organ and combination of more than one organs even the whole plant could be used as colorant substances. In addition to coloring fabrics, dyeing plants are also used for coloring foods, beverages, fine arts, furniture, skin and teeth. Eleven different colors and tones have been obtained by coloring foods, fibers and other dyed materials. The same color with different shades can be obtained from different plants, and different parts of the same plant can produce different colors. By Mixing different plants or different parts of the plant, and adding mordants and assistant substances in extracted liquid, it is possible to produce multiple colors. Traditional management practices have resulted in a sustainable use of dyeing plant resources and biodiversity conservation. We also found that in traditional coloring practices, seven natural and two chemical mordants, and some assistant substances are used in the region to bind dye to fibers, to maintain the fastness and brightness of the colors, and to obtain various colors. Redyeing, overdyeing, mordanting, and adding assistant substances are the key know-how of color control in local coloring practices. Xishuangbanna has 13 ethnic groups and a rich biocultural diversity. Among different ethnic cultures, there are distinctive differences in their natural coloring cultures. These are exhibited through their traditional knowledge in identifying and utilizing dyeing plants, reasons for coloring, various colors of the dyed materials, parts of plants used, and traditional dyeing teckniques. Over time, human interactions with plants has created specific coloring cultures. TCK reflects perfectly the dynamic interaction between ethnic people and plants, and its origin and development possesses distinctive characteristics of the particular ethnic culture and the flora of the region. The study showed that, to some degree, local people of Xishuangbanna have already developed and preserved a nearly perfect system of TCK on the use of dye plants, which was identified by using a high diversity of dyeing plant species, a wide variety of colored materials, abundant colors of dyed products, and the use of environmentally friendly mordants and assistant substances, as well as a more systematic dyeing method and skilled color control. Dyeing plants are an important part of biodiversity, are valuable plant resources, and they play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the regional flora, human well-being and social development. Moreover, dyeing plant resources have great value in conservation and sustainable use. TCK, a multipurpose component of ethnic culture, is of great value for modern human society. This survey on colorant-yielding plants used by indigenous people provides a scientific understanding of dye plant resources and local knowledge in the study area, and contributes to the search for new natural and healthy food additives, fabric dyes, cosmetics and medicinal colorants. These are potential valuable for livelihood improvement, regional economic development, inheritance of ethnic culture, and biodiversity conservation.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/60
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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西双版纳传统染色植物之民族植物学研究.张国学[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2007.20-25
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