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题名: 怒江傈傈族自治州勒墨人(白族支系)的民族植物学研究
作者: 郭晓荣
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 龙春林
关键词: 怒江傈僳族自治州 ; 勒墨人 ; 传统农耕系统 ; 植物利用知识 ; 民族植物学
中文摘要: 居住在怒江傈僳族自治州的勒墨人是白族的一个支系,世代生活在怒江州高山峡谷的自然环境中,为怒江州的原住民之一。由于交通不便和经济落后,其日常生活的需求很大程度上依赖于周围的自然环境,发展了与周围环境广泛而深刻的关系。对这样一个人群的民族植物学研究在目前报道得很少,仅为初步的调查记载。选择勒墨人进行民族植物学研究,旨在尽快记录并尽可能地保存他们优秀的传统文化。本文运用民族植物学和文化人类学相结合的方法,对怒江州勒墨人的传统农耕系统管理、植物利用知识等方面进行了调查研究。研究鲒果表明,勒墨人经营的“漆树+桤木+包谷”混农林系统是粮食、经济产出相互交替的土地利用系统,是人与自然长期相互影响、相互作用、互相适应下的产物,是一种适合当地生态环境的农耕系统,具有经济、生态可持续性。勒墨人在土地分类、利用、管理方面有广泛而实用的传统知识体系,是他们在长期的农耕实践中总结出的宝贵财富。勒墨人的药用植物知识是他们在与自然界的生存斗争中的经验积累。本文共收集了具药用功效的植物66种,隶属于35科、59属。这些植物的使用方法均以单方形式出现,也没有特别的炮制方法,水煎服和捣碎外敷是最主要的两种治疗方法。勒墨人对疾病没有专门的理论解释。这些均表明勒墨人对疾病的治疗仍停留在初级的经验阶段,还没有上升为理论体系或仅有一点理论的萌芽。在研究中发现,勒墨人对重要药材一黄连(Coptis teeta)有栽培的传统,并报道了栽培方法。勒墨人对植物的其它利用知识也很丰富,包括野生食用植物、薪柴、猪饩料等方面的知识。本文报道了勒墨人采集的40种野生食用植物。本文应用生态学和持续发展的观点对勒墨人的传统文化进行了分析评价,同时指出外来文化的影响和市场经济的刺激正在影响甚至在某种程度上改变了勒墨人传统的文化和生产方式。最后,针对研究中发现的问题提出建议:在勒墨人农耕系统的休闲期增加种植固氮植物,减少玉米、南瓜等一般作物的种植;在药材种植方面政府应适当加强对勒墨人的政策扶持和信息导向,帮助勒墨人提高经济收入,改善生活,以减少对当地自然资源的利用压力。
英文摘要: Lemo people - a branch of Bai nationality is one of the indigenous habitants in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture. They live in a remote place surrounded by high mountains and isolated by deep valleys. They depend on natural resources to a great extent. The relationship between people and nature is close. Few ethnobotanical researches on Lemo people have been done in Nujiang Prefecture. Ethnobotanical and anthropological methods were used in this study. The management of traditional agricultural system and indigenous botanical knowledge of Lemo people had been investigated and recorded. The results of this study are concluded as follows: The agricultural system of Lemo people is swidden agriculture. The swidden system can be formulated as grain (on farm) + lacquer (Toxicodendron vernicifluwri) or a\dGt(Alnus nepalensis) (off farm). The Lemo i people can get grain and cash income in turn from the system. The Lemo's agricultural system is the interaction between people and ecological environment. It is regarded to be sustainable in economy and ecology. The Lemo people are knowledgeable in the classification, usage and management of their land. Lemo people have also developed indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants. 66 medicinal plant species were documented, belonging to 35 families and 59 genera. They usually use only one plant species to treat certain ailment instead of mixing several species. The medical theory system of the Lemo people is still at the rudimentary stage and not well-developed. The Lemo people cultivate "Huang lian "(Coptis teetri) as an important medicinal plant. The indigenous botanical knowledge of the Lemo people is abundant, they collect 40 species of edible plants, and some other plants for fuel wood and fodders. The author analyzed the traditional culture of Lemo people from the viewpoints of ecology and sustainable development. Exotic cultures and market-orientated economy are affecting or changing Lemo people's culture and traditional agricultural production practices. The-Lemo's traditional culture is on the way of extinction. Some suggestions have been proposed at the end of this paper based on the research results.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/596
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
怒江傈傈族自治州勒墨人(白族支系)的民族植物学研究.郭晓荣[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2000.20-25
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