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题名: 保山西庄山地流域水土资源综合研究
作者: 高富
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 许建初
关键词: 保山西庄山地流域 ; 水土资源 ; 气候特征 ; 农田生态系统 ; 土壤肥力 ; 土壤侵蚀 ; 水环境
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 人口增长、环境退化、自然生态环境承载力日益降低导致人口、资源、环境和粮食问题日见突出,已成为全人类面临的严重问题。水土资源流失是导致环境危机的关键因素之一。19世纪50年代以来,水土资源保持不再局限在农耕地上,而是以山区流域为单元进行小流域尺度上水土资源的保护、改造与合理利用。一系列国际组织机构共同致力于水土资源保护工作,中国在水土资源的保护、治理与合理利用方面也采用以流域为单元,多学科联合攻关的方法加强退化生态环境的综合治理工作,并取得了良好成效。本文中,采用水文、气象、土壤研究和社会经济研究相结合的方法,对保山西庄山地流域水土资源进行了综合研究。研究结果表明:1)流域内发生的低温、大风、季节性干旱是影响农业生产的主要气象灾害,干湿分明的季风气候是造成水土资源动态变化的直接因素。2)在群落优势种原则、群落季相更替原则和微地形差异原则指导下,把流域农田生态系统分为单一型、复合型、混农林型以及类庭园型四种基本类型。在此基础上对农田生态系统组成、功能进行简单讨论。3) 流域林地、耕地、茶园和灌丛四种土地利用方式对土壤肥力影响明显:土壤有机质和全氮含量变化从大到小依次为,灌丛>林地>茶园>耕地;磷、钾元素表现为,耕地>茶园>林地>灌丛;CEC表现为,耕地>茶园>灌丛>林地;CBS表现为,耕地>灌丛>林地>茶园;农业耕作活动对表层土壤物理性质影响明显。4)雨季初期和末期的降雨具有较大的自然侵蚀力,耕作土壤的侵蚀状况受作物覆盖、土壤含水量、土壤有机物含量等因素有关。5)流域径流特点可归纳为汛期流量大、枯季径流小、地表径流时隐时现。径流是泥沙输移的主要动力,以悬移质和推移质两种方式把输送到河床的泥沙运送到流域以外。最后,根据流域水土资源综合研究结果,提出了加强流域环境综合治理、促进可持续发展的建议:1)实施科学合理施肥体系,加快土壤熟化速度,提高农田单产。2)采用适当措施,解决农田灌溉用水问题。3)在农田耕作制度上,采用具有水土保持效果的耕作措施。4)加强流域农业技术推广,以提高农业生产中的科技贡献率。
英文摘要: As population increases, the environment becomes degraded and the natural environment carrying capacity declines, the issues of population, resources, environment and food security are becoming serious challenges facing the society. Soil and water erosion is one of the key factors which leads to environment degradation. After 1950s, soil and water conservation programs were carried out on cultivated land, however, applied to a mountain watershed unit. Many research works on how to protect, utilize and upgrade the soil and water resources were carried out on a small watershed scale. Now many international organizations have been established to combat soil and water erosion. In China, an inter-disciplinary approach was implemented to find the best way to protect and utilize soil and water resources within the scope of the watershed unit. Many successful cases prove that watershed unit management is good way to solve soil and water erosion. In this study, the indicators including hydrology, meteorology, soil and socio-economic factors were compiled for the Xizhuang Mountain Watershed, Baoshan Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The results were as follows: Low summer temperatures, strong wind and seasonally dry are the main climatic hazards affecting the agriculture harvest in the research watershed. Dry and wet monsoon climate is the direct reason leading to the change of soil and water resources. According to the principles of dominant species in the community, seasonal rotation, micro-ecotope differences, farmland ecosystems in the watershed are divided into single-type (mono-crop rotation), compound-type, agro-forestry type and similar garden type. On the base of classification of farmland ecosystem, the author discusses the components and functions of farmland ecosystems. Different land use types have obvious effects on the soil fertility. Both soil organic matter(%) and total nitrogen(ug · g~(-1)) content decline in a sequences from bush land, forest land and tea garden to farm land; those of phosphorus (ug · g~(-1))element and potassium(cmol·kg~(-1)) element from farmland, tea garden and forest land to bush land; those of CEC(cmol·kg~(-1)) from farmland, tea garden, bush land to forest land; those of CBS(%) from farm land, bush land, and forest land to tea garden. Farming practices have significant impacts on the physical and chemical properties of topsoil. At the start and end of the monsoon, rainfall will have more serious erosion action. Soil erosion in farmlands is affected by factors such as crop cover, soil water content, organic content and other factors. In this thesis, the basic hydrological systems of the watershed have been discussed. Finally, some recommendations have been made according to conditions and local people on how to use and protect soil and water resources in Xizhuang Mountain watershed. These included the following: Scientifically applied fertilizer and manure to farmland, soil improvement, improving crop yield Change rainfed farmland into irrigation cultivated land Soil and water conservation programs to be applied in the cultivatable land Extending new agro-technology, improving the contribution rate of scientific-technology in agriculture.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/594
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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