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题名: 云南红头瑶药用植物的民族植物学研究
作者: 李嵘
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 龙春林
关键词: 红头瑶 ; 药用植物 ; 民族植物学 ; 民族药物学
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 瑶族是举世闻名的山地民族之一,在长期的生产实践过程中,瑶族先民创造和积累了丰富的传统医药文化知识。云南的红头瑶是瑶族的一个支系,其流传于民间的医药理论知识源远流长。本文在文献研究的基础上,运用自然科学、社会科学的方法,对云南金平一带的红头瑶进行了大量的民间访问和野外调查,通过室内的整理和分析,比较系统的研究了红头瑶的传统医药文化知识。主要结果如下:1 瑶医治病、诊病的类型和方法。红头瑶的民间医药是一种经验医学,它正处于不断积累和丰富完善的阶段;瑶医治病的种类涉及所有现代医学的疾病类型;他们认为人体患病与自然环境、饮食不调等因素密切相关;常用的治疗方法有“内治法”、“外治法”、“药膳疗法”;在诊病方法上,他们采用“望、闻、问、触”的方法,而重于“问”。2 瑶医用药的原则、特点和对药物的分类。大多数瑶医采用盈亏平衡理论作为用药的指导原则;他们将药物分为“虎”、“牛”、“钻”、“风”四类;治病时,用药剂量因人、因时、因地而异,多以植物药为主,配合动物药使用。3 瑶医的性别组成及民间预防疾病的方法。红头瑶草医大都为妇女;民间常采用药浴、火葬和隔离的方法来预防疾病。4 瑶医药的传承、特点及与其它文化的关系。瑶医药的传承没有严格的人员限制;它具有医药不分家、异地用药、药食同源等特征;此外,瑶族传统医药知识与宗教文化、封建迷信也有着千丝万缕的联系。5 药用植物的种类、分布及生活型特征。在野外调查中,共记载红头瑶常用药用植物116种,隶属于64科101属。就生活型来说,绝大多数药用植物为草本、藤本、灌木,乔木很少;就分布来说,瑶医使用的药用植物主要为广布种和常见种,极少有地方特有种。6 药用植物的采集、裁培和利用。对药用植物资源的开发,瑶医本着保护和利用相结合的原则,采药部位随季节、气候的变化而有所不同;此外,他们也在自己的家庭园中栽培一些濒危珍贵的药用植物。目前,由于红头瑶草医大都年事已高,加之外来各民族主流文化和西方医药的深远影响,流传于本民族中的传统医药文化知识面临大量流失的威胁。此外,由于对药用植物资源的不合理开发,导致许多当地的珍贵药用植物濒临灭绝。面对这一境况,作者建议:1 通过政府的参与,加大区域性民族药研究的力度,采取有效的措施来抢救传承了数千年的宝贵医药文化知识。2 在挖掘、整理和利用民间传统医药文化知识的同时,应该尊重当地人积累的传统知识、保护他们的知识产权。3 结合现代生物技术的方法,通过国家宏观政策的调控,对现有药用植物资源进行合理规划和深度研究,做到药用植物资源的有效保护和可持续利用。4 通过科普教育,提高红头瑶社区居民的文化素质,使其充分认识自己传统医药文化知识的科学性和合理性,从而彻底摆脱宗教文化的束缚,根除封建迷信的影响。
英文摘要: The Yao people is one of nationalities who have lived in mountains for a long history. During the production and practice, the ancestors of Yao people have developed rich traditional medicinal knowledge. The Red-headed Yao people in Yunnan is a branch of Yao nationality. They have accumulated traditional medicinal knowledge and developed medicinal culture for a long time. On the base of literature studies, field investigations were carried out in the Red-headed communities around Jinping County, Yunnan Province through methods of natural and social sciences. Through studying and analyzing the information collected in the field, the traditional medicinal knowledge of the Red-headed Yao people has been systematically collected and analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1. Types and methods to diagnoze and treat diseases. The medicine of the Red-headed Yao people is an experienced medicine. It is still in the stage of accumulation and improvement of medicinal knowledge. The types of diagnose and treatment of diseases are the same as modern medicine. The Red-headed Yao herbal medicinal doctors believe that diseases are correlative to natural environment and daily diet. The treatment methods include "internal treatment", "external treatment"and "food treatment". They adopt "seeing", "listening", "asking" and "feeling" to diagnoze diseases, and "asking" is the most common method of diagnoses. 2. Principle and character of administration and classification of drugs. The principle of balancing "in & out" is main theoretical base for administration of the Red-headed Yao healers. The drugs are consisted of plants mainly and mixed some animals. According to different people, time and place, the amount of drugs is different when the healers diseases. The drugs are divided into types of "tiger", "ox", "drilling" and "wind" by them. 3. Gender issue of Red-headed Yao herbal medicinal doctors and traditional methods of health care. Most folk healers in Red-Headed Yao societies are women. The local Red-Headed Yao People take Medicinal bath, cremation and isolation to treat with or prevent them from some diseases. 4. Dispersal, character of Yao medicine and connection with other culture. Dispersal of the Red-headed Yao medicine has a great range. The Yao traditional medicine has the following characters: medicine and drug are close connection, using herbal drugs collected from different environments for different population to treat illness, and a traditional belief of drug and food has the same origin. There are various connections between the Yao traditional medicine culture and superstition and religion. 5. Species, distribution and life-form of medicinal plants. During the field investigation, 116 species were recorded as medicine plants used by the Red-headed Yao people. They consist of 64 families and 101 genera. Most of medicinal plants are herbs, lianes, shrubs and rarely trees. Most of medicinal plants are widespreading species, common species and rarely endemic species. 6. Collecting, cultivation and use of medicinal plants. For exploitation of medicinal plant resources, the Red-headed Yao healers have paid great attention to both conservation and use. Under different seasons and climate conditions, the herbal medicinal doctors collect different parts of medicinal plants. In addition, they cultivate some endangered and rare medicinal plants in their home gardens. At present, most of the Red-headed Yao herbal medicinal doctors are very old. Moreover main stream culture of external nationalities and western medicine have affected local traditional medicine culture. The Red-headed Yao's traditional knowledge of medicine and drugs is on the edge of extinction. The diversity of local medicinal plants is lossing faster and faster. The author suggests: 1. With the government participation, more ethnopharmacological studies should be carried out in different regions. At the same time, more effective methods should be used to save the traditional medicinal knowledge which has existed for a long time. 2. The intellectual property right of traditional medicinal knowledge should be paid great attention when we collect and use folk traditional medicine. 3. With the support from state policies and biotechnology, traditional medicinal plant resources may be conserved and utilized sustainably. 4. It is necessary to promote local Red-headed Yao People's intellectual competence through populization of scientific knowledge in local communities. As a result, they can fully realize rationalization of their traditional medicinal culture and distinguish false parts and superstition from the traditional knowledge.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/544
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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李嵘. 2000. 云南红头瑶药用植物的民族植物学研究. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 硕士论文
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