三七皂甙的进一步化学研究
李海舟
学位类型硕士
导师杨崇仁
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
关键词三七 三七叶 三七根腐病 五加科 三七皂甙 人参皂甙
摘要本论文分为三个部分。第一部分论述对三七根、茎叶化学成分的进一步系统研究;第二部分报导三七病害的化学生态学研究工作;第三部分综述近年来(90-99年)三七在化学和药理学方面的研究进展。三七(Panax notoginseng(Burk)F.H. Chen ex C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng),又名田七、人参三七、田三七、山漆、金不换等,为五加科人参属植物,是云南的地道药材,有“南方人参”之称。现代化学和药理学研究认为三萜皂甙是人参属的主要生理活性成分,三七中含有丰富的这类化合物,是人参属植物中含量最高者,特别是人参皂甙Rg_1和Rb_1的含量比人参和西洋参高得多。迄今,已从三七全株中分离到44个三萜皂甙,发现三七总皂甙和部分单体皂甙在血液系统、心脑血管系统、神经系统、免疫系统、物质代谢以及抗炎、抗衰老、抗肿瘤等方面均有较好活性。进一步对三七根总皂甙研究,从中分离鉴定了13个皂甙成分。其中1个新化合物,命名为三七皂甙(Notoginsenoside)R_(10)(1), 以及人参皂甙(Ginsenoside)Rh_1(2)、Rg_3(4)、Rg_2(6)、Rg_1(8)、Rd(10)、Re(11)、Rb_1(13)、Rb_2(14)、20(R)人参皂甙Rg_3(5),三七皂甙(Notoginsenoside)R_2(7)、R_1(12)和七叶胆皂甙(Gypenoside)XVII(9)。三七茎叶亦供药用,从其乙醇提物中分离到18个化合物,经光谱鉴定了其中的15个,分别为:人参皂甙(Ginsenoside)Rh_2(1)、F_2(4)、Rg_3(5)、Rg_1(7)、Rd(8)、Re(11)、Rb_3(13)、Rb_1(14)、Rc(15),七叶胆皂甙(Gypenoside)XIII(2)、IX(9)、XVII(10),三七皂甙(Notoginsenoside)R_1(12),甘草素(liquiritigenin,3)及芹糖甘草甙(liquiritin apioside,6)。其中化合物1,2,3,6是三七中首次报导,化合物1~8及10~12系首次从三七茎叶中分离得到。三七茎叶中以原人参二醇型皂甙为主,还含量颇微的原人参三醇型皂甙和黄酮类化合物。三七根腐病别名鸡屎烂、臭七,是一种具毁灭性危害三七根茎的病害,常年损失5~20%。其病原菌,多数是假单孢杆菌(Pseudomones spp.)(占90%),腐皮镰孢(Fusarium spp.)等真菌很少。从患病三七根中分离鉴定了16个皂甙成分。其中3个新化合物,命名为:三七皂甙(Notoginsenoside)R_(11)(6)、R_(12)(7)、R_(13)(8),以及人参皂甙(Ginsenoside)Rh_1(1)、Rg_3(2)、Rg_2(3)、Rg_1(5)、Rd(10)、Re(11)、Rb_2(14)、Rb_1(15)、Rc(16),三七皂甙( Notoginsenoside)R_2(7)、R_1(12)、R_3(13)和七叶胆皂甙(Gypenoside)XVII(9)。其皂甙成分与正常三七有一定差别,部分皂甙侧链变化,并且不是由病原菌直接转化的。
其他摘要The thesis consists of three parts. The first part is the further studies on the glycosides of the roots and leaves of P. notoginseng. The second part is the study on the chemical ecology of P. notoginseng root rot. The third part reviews the advances in the chemistry and pharmacology of P. notoginseng in the latest decade. Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H.Chen ex C.Y.Wu et K.M.Feng, also called "San-Qi", "Tian-Qi", "Sanqi ginseng" or "Jin-Bu-Huan" locally, belongs to Araliaceae. It is indigenous to Yunnan province, and called "South Ginseng". According to the chemical and pharmacological studies, its triterpenoids are considered as the active components of Panax genus. The triterpenoids are abundant in notoginseng, which has the highest content of those components in Panax genus. Especially, the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1 and Rb_1 of P. notoginseng are higher than those of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium, which are well-known medicinal plants. So far, forty-four saponins have been isolated from P. notoginseng. It has found its total saponins and some of them have activities in hematology, cardiovascular system, cerebrovascular system, neural system, immunity system, substance metabolism, and anti-inflammation, prolong life, anticancer activities. In the further study on the total saponins of the roots of P. notoginseng, thirteen saponins were isolated and identified. One of them is a new compound, which is named notoginsenoside R_(10)(1). The others are ginsenoside Rh_1(2), Rg_3(4), Rg_2(6), Rg_1(8), Rd(10), Re(11), Rb_1(13), Rb_2(14), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg_3(5), notoginsenoside R_2(7), R_1(12), and gypenoside XVII(9). The leaves of P. notoginseng is a natural medicine too. Eighteen compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the leaves, and fifteen compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Thirteen of them are saponins: ginsenoside Rh_2(1), F_2(4), Rg_3(5), Rg_1(7), Rd(8), Re(11), Rb_3(13), Rb_1(14), Rc(15), gypenoside XIII(2), IX(9), XVII(10), notogenoside R_1(12), and two of them are flavanone: liquirtigenin(3), liquiritin apioside (6). Amoung the mentioned comounds, 1, 2, 3, 6 are first reported of this species. In the leaves of P. notoginseng, most of glycosides are the protopanaxdiol type saponins, only a few of them are the protopanaxtriol type saponins (as ginsenoside Rg_1, Re, notoginsenoside R_1) and flavanones. P. notoginseng root rot, which is called "Ji-Shi-Lan" or "Chou-Qi" locally, is a destructive disease, which made 5 ~ 20% of the plant loss annually. Isolated from root rot of P. notoginseng, 90% of the pathogenic bacteria is Pseudomones spp., along with fewer fungi such as Fusarium spp.. Sixteen saponins were isolated and identified from the fresh roots of P. notoginseng root rot. There are three new compounds, named notoginsenoside R_(11)(6), R_(12)(7), R_(13)(8), and thirteen known compounds-ginsenoside Rh_1(1), Rg_3(2), Rg_2(3), Rg_1(5), Rd(10), Re(11), Rb_2(14), Rb_1(15), Rc(16), notoginsenoside R_2(7), R_1(12), R_3(13), and gypenoside XVII(9). The saponins of P. notoginseng root rot are different from normal ones. The chain of some saponins were changed, but were not transformed by the pathogenic bacteria.
页数105
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/542
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
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李海舟. 三七皂甙的进一步化学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2000.
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