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题名: 雪胆属两种植物的化学成分研究与分子系统进化探讨
作者: 高娟
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2000
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 邱明华
关键词: 雪胆属 ; 丽江雪胆 ; 马铜铃 ; ITS序列
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 雪胆属(Hemsleya Cogn.)植物大多是传统的中药材,主要分布在我国的云南、四川。在云南民间曾被用来治疗牲畜的肠炎、菌痢,后发现对人的菌痢、肠炎、支气管炎、急性扁桃体炎、肺部、胆道、泌尿道感染效果也显著,现已记录在中华人民共和国药典中。本论文是对雪胆属植物进行研究。本论文共分三部分来论述。第一部分研究了雪胆属中两种植物的化学成分。包括第一章 丽江雪胆的化学成分研究。从中共分得化合物21个,其中3个新化合物是23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin F-16, 25-diacetate、 23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin F-16-acetate 和(23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin E、)23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin F-16. 25-diacetate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside: 第二章马铜铃的化学成分研究,从中共分得化合物7个。第二部分包括第三章,讨论雪胆属植物的rDNA ITSs的分子生物学特点,试图通过现代分子生物学技术,结合有关文献来探讨植物系统进化的问题。第三部分即第四章,对关于近年来的雪胆属植物的研究进展进行了综述。丽江雪胆(Hemsleya lijiangensis)属于雪胆属曲莲组(Sect.mabiles),除果实形状和果柄不具关节外,其他与曲莲(H. ambilis)十分相似,很难分别。为解决分类学上的问题,及更好的开发这种药用植物,我们对其块茎进行了化学分析,分离出21个化合物。马铜铃(H. graciliflora)是雪胆属中较为特殊的一个种,它没有膨大的地下块茎,分布较广,在雪胆属中为较原始的一种,在不同的分类系统中置于不同的位置,它的果实在四川民间入药,有止咳化痰的功效。我们对其地下根进行化学分析,分离出化合物7个。DNA是主要的遗传物质,分析DNA序列对研究生物的进化历程,确定物种间的系统进化关系,有着许多优越性,随着PCR技术和DNA自动分析技术的发明和发展,DNA序列分析已经成为研究系统进化的最有效和最热门的工具之一。把DNA技术引进传统的中药品种鉴定,对中药现代化是一个有利的促进。本论文测定了雪胆属植物及其相关植物的rDNA的ITS序列,通过比较,得出它们的系统进化关系。最后综述近年来对雪胆属植物的研究进展,分别从植物化学、形态学分类和分子水平上阐述,以期对其开发利用提供较充分的科学评价。
英文摘要: The plants of the genus Hemsleya Cogn. are abundant in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, China. They are used as traditional medicines. In our research, the plants of the Genus Hemsleya are studied in order to make good use of them. There are three parts in this dissertation. Part one is about the constituents of the two plants, Hemsleya lijiangensis and H. gracilifora. 21 compounds have been found in H. lijiangensis and 7 compounds in H. gracilifora, and 3 of them are new: 23, 24-dihydro ucurbitacin F-16, 25-di-acetate、 23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin F-16-acetate and 23, 24-dihydro cucurbitacin F-16, 25-diacetate-2-0-β-D-glucopyranosi de. Part two is about the molecular biology characters of the ITS regions (internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2) of several plants in the family Cucurbitacea. We discussed some problems in phylogenetic evolution using the. techniques of the modern molecular biology together with the data of references. The third part is reviewed the progress that had been done before and what has been done recently. H. lijianggensis belongs to the genus Hemsleya Sect. Amabiles, and it is so similar to H. amabileis except that there are different between the fruits' shapes and it has no fruit's stem joint. Also H. lijiangensis is a useful folk medicine. In the search for its biologically active constitutes, we found 3 new compounds and 18 known compounds. H. graciliflora is much more different than any others in the Genus Hemsleya, for it has ne ~+umor rhizome. It is a traditional medicinal plant in Sichuan province used for cough and phlegm. Chemical investigation on this plant had led to the isolation of 7 compounds. DNA is the main genetic factor in biology, studying the DNA sequences of plants has ma, ny advanced characters in identifying the evolutional phylogenetic relationship among species. In order to make clear of the evolutional phylogenetic relationships in Hemsleya, we have sequenced ITS regions of 8 species in Hemsleya and 3 species in which have close relationships with Hemsleya, and reached the phenograms from MP and Neighbor-joining methods. Finally, the progress of the Hemsleya's study in recent years was reviewed in this thesis. Key words: Hemsleya, H. lijiangensis, H. graciliflora, rDNA, ITS sequence.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/526
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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