云南省丽江纳西族自治县民族民间杀虫植物的研究
纪运恒
学位类型硕士
导师裴盛基
2000-07
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词杀虫植物 民族植物学 狼毒 植物农药 开发利用
摘要民间利用植物防治农作物害虫在我国各族人民中均具有悠久的历史,在化学农药广泛存在的今天,这些传统杀虫植物对于植物农药的开发有着重要的意义,为寻找有较高开发利用潜力的杀虫植物,运用民族植物学方法、文献研究法对云南省丽江纳西族自治县的杀虫植物资源和当地纳西族、白族、彝族、藏族民间利用植物防治害虫的传统知识与经验进行了调查、研究和评价。在此基础上运用多学科方法重点对民间杀虫植物狼毒(Stellera chamaeiasme L)进行了初步研究,主要研究结果如下:(1)丽江县共有杀虫植物78种,隶属于37科、65属,资源非常丰富;其中36种为当地民族民间所使用,并首次发现了车桑子等8种植物的民间杀虫用途,说明了当地民族民间积累了丰富的利用植物防治害虫的传统知识和经验。(2)当地杀虫植物主要分布在茄科、菊科、大戟科、蝶形花科等8个科中,生活型以多年生草本(34.6%)和一年生草本(24.4%)为多,使用部位以全草为主(42.3%),大多为传统中药。(3)狼毒、车桑子提取物对菜粉蝶幼虫显示出较强的拒食活性,有望成为植物农药开发的新资源。(4)狼毒的原植物应为瑞香科植物Stellera chamaejasme L.,我国各民族积累了丰富的利用狼毒的传统知识和经验,对于该植物的开发利用有重要的价值。(5)狼毒的昆虫拒食活性部位为乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取部位,从中分离到4个化合物,经结构鉴定为β-谷甾醇、柚皮甙、新狼毒素-B和狼毒色原酮。研究结果表明,民族植物学方法在杀虫植物资源开发中有着重要的应用价值,可望成为杀虫植物资源开发的新途径。狼毒资源丰富,对昆虫的作用活性强,是一种理想的植物农药资源植物。最后,基于研究结果对于狼毒的综合利用及开发利用研究提出若干建议。
其他摘要The using of plants for pests control is a long tradition of Chinese people including ethnic nationalities of China. Traditional pesticidal plants are very valuable for exploiting plant-dereved pesticide. To seek some promising pesticidal plants, ethnobotanical methods and literatural studies have been employed to investigate and evaluate the situation of pesticidal plant resources and traditional knowledge concerning indigenous pesticide hold by Naxi, Bai, Yi nationality and Tibetan in Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County. Moreover, a primary study used multi-disciplinary approach was conducted toward Stellera chamaejasme L., an important traditional pesticidal plant of China. The major results are as follows: (1) Lijiang is rich in pesticidal plants. A total 78 species pesticidal plants belonging to 65 genera and 37 families had been documented troughout this study. Of them, 38 species were traditionally used by local people and 8 species were found the pesticidal activity for the first time. It indicated the fact that local people had accumulated rich knowledge and experience in using plants for pests control. (2) Of those plants, 58.9% of total species are from 8 families such as Solanaceae, Compositae, Euphorbiaceae and Papilionaceae. A total of 42.3% species are collected whole plant. Theroherbs and perennial herbs posses 24.4% and 34.6% of total species respectively. Most of those plant can be use as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. (3) The Et-OH extraction of Stellera chamaejasme and Dodoneae viscosa displayed strong antifeedant activity against the larvae of pieris brassicae in the bioassay, that imply the potent utilization value of them. (4) The botanical origin of"langdu" in Chinese should be as botanical name Stellera chamaejasme L. has been examined in this study. A great deal of traditional knowledge of utilization this plant had been accumulated among many nationalities in China. The knowledge is helpful to exploiting it. (5) The Ethyl acetate section of ethanol extraction of the root of Stellera chamaejasme L. indicated strongest antifeedantal activity comparing with other sections. 4 compounds were isolated from it and indentified as (1) β -sitosterol, (2) naringenin, (3) neochamaejasme-B and (4) chamachromone respectively on the base of spectral evidence. The study also addressed the potential value of ethnobotanical appoach in exploiting pesticidal plants resources. Moreover, rich in resouce and it's strong bioactivity, Stellera chamaejasme L. should be a kind of plant resource for exploitin plant-derived pesticide. Finally, based on the research, some suggestion was proposed for conservation traditional knowledge and exploiting Stellera chamaejasme L. for pesticide.
页数73
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/524
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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纪运恒. 云南省丽江纳西族自治县民族民间杀虫植物的研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2000.
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