广义核果茶属的分类、分化和地理分布
杨世雄
学位类型博士
导师吴征镒
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词山茶科 广义核果茶属 分类学范围 系统位置 分类学修订 地理公布
摘要本文采用形态学、解剖学、孢粉学、细胞学和分子系统学等多学科的手段和方法探讨了广义核果茶属的分类学范围和系统位置。在形态学上,广义核果茶属内各个狭义类群间没有本质的区别,以往学者们用来区分这些狭义类群的形态学特征多不稳定或不可靠,而种子和幼苗的形态特征将各个狭义类群紧密地联系在一起并明显区别于山茶科的其它分类群。通过叶表皮气孔器类型的观察,更正了以往学者关于核果茶属的气孔器为“毛茛型”的错误结果,证实核果茶属具有与石笔木属、拟核果茶属以及所有山茶亚科分类群相同的气孔器类型-大头茶型。孢粉学研究结果显示,广义核果茶属的各狭义类群的孢粉学特征非常相似,都具有皱波状至皱网状的外壁纹饰。广义核果茶属的染色体基数X=15,所有被研究样品均为二倍体,都表现出简单染色中心型的间期核形态。ITS序列分析支持广义核果茶属为一单系类群。综上所述,术文认为,广义核果茶属是一个不可分割的自然类群,支持建立一个包括核果茶属、石笔木属、拟核果茶属、华核果茶属、Eusynaxis 和 Dubardella 在内的广义的核果茶属。该属与山茶属和大头茶属(Polyspora)的关系最近,但演化水平可能更低。鉴于广义核果茶属在形态学以及其它方面的独特性,本文支持设立一个核果茶族。本文首次开展了广义核果茶属全球性的分类学修订工作,提出了一个包括5个组的属下分类系统,确诊全球核果茶属植物计25种1亚种5变种,(其中中国产12种1亚种和3变种),包括1个新变种,6个新组合,归并了19个异名。植物地理学研究表明,广义核果茶属是一个热带性很强的类群,其分布区类型属热带亚洲分布型的一个变型,中南半岛和马来西亚地区是该属的现代分布中心,中南半岛可能是该类群的起源地,该类群的起源时间应该早于始新世,可能在古新世或更早。
其他摘要Pyrenaria Bl. s.l. includes 6 genera in narrow sense, namely Pyrenaria Bl. s.s., Tutcheria Dunn, Parapyrenaria H.T. Chang, Sinopyrenaria Hu, Eusynaxis Griff. and Dubardella H. J. Lam. The taxonomic circumscription and systematic position of Pyrenaria s.l. were approached by means of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytotaxonomy and molecular systematics. Morphologically, no basic steady differences exist among the 6 narrowly-defined genera. The diagnostic features for distinguishing them, such as the number of ovules in each locule and the texture of pericarps, are often continuous or unreliable. In contrast, the rather consistent features in seeds and seedlings make these narrowly-defined groups altogether and distinguish it from the neighboring genera in the Theaceae. The survey of leaf epidermis revealed that the stomatal apparatus of Pyrenaria s.s. is of Gordoniaceous-Type and is consistent with those of Tutcheria, Parapyrenaria as well as other taxa in the subfamily Theoideae, thus it corrects the result of Keng (1962) who mistakenly reported that the stomatal apparatus of Pyrenaria s.s. was of Ranunculaceous-Type, the same type as the subfamily Ternstroemioideae. The pollen morphology is of uniform to rather extent in Pyrenaria. s.l. The exine sculpture of all species examined could be circumscribed as rugulate-undulate or rugulate-reticulate. Karyomorphologically all taxa investigated here share commonly the interphase nucleus of simple chromocenter type and the same chromosome numbers, 2n=30 (x = 15). The ITS sequence data provides robust support that Pyrenaria s.l. is a monophyletic group. The above-mentioned results altogether support to reduce Tutcheria, Parapyrenaria, Sinopyrenaria, Eusynaxis and Dubardella as synonyms of Pyrenaria s.l. Moreover these data support the close relationship between Pyrenaria s.l., Camellia and Polyspora, and suggest that Pyrenaria s.l. is perhaps less derived than the later two genera. A worldwide taxonomic revision of Pyrenaria s.l. was carried out in the present study. Twenty-five species, one subspecies and five varieties were recognized, in which one variety and six combinations are new. Meanwhile, an infrageneric system containing five sections was presented here. Pyrenaria s.l is a group mainly distributed in the Old World tropics, with a few species distributed to/in subtropical region. Its distribution can be categorized to a subtype of the Tropical Asia Type based on C.Y.Wu (1991)'s scheme. Indo-China and Malesia, where 22 species and all 9 sections occur, are its modern distribution center. Pyrenaria s.l. may be originated in Indo-China before Eocene (Paleocene or earlier).
页数6201
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/522
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨世雄. 广义核果茶属的分类、分化和地理分布[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2000.
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