变色秋海棠的园艺学研究
田代科
学位类型硕士
导师管开云
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词秋海棠属 变色秋海棠 居群生物学 植物引种 繁殖 杂交育种
摘要论文从形态学、居群生物学、细胞学、植物引种学、病虫害防治、繁殖和杂交育种等方面对变色秋海棠(Begonia versicolor Irmscher)的研究进行了报道。变色秋海棠属于秋海棠科(Begoniaceae)秋海棠属(Begonia L.)中的扁果组(Sect. Platycentrum Klotzsch),为多年生常绿匍匐草本。本种叶片色彩丰富,具有很高的观赏价值,但资源十分有限,仅分布于云南东南部蒙自、屏边、马关和麻栗坡等四县的少数林区,生长于常绿阔叶林下,喜阴凉和空气潮湿的环境。变色秋海棠的植物学性状绝大多数比较保守,即使部分性状出现不同程度的分化,也无明显的间断,其中生殖器官的一些质量性状十分稳定。不同个体间叶片颜色和斑纹的巨大差异,并不是由于生境不同和染色体数目发生变异,而很可能是受一系列等位基因控制的结果,因为对不同表现型的个体进行细胞学分析,其染色体数目均为2n=22,并且与以前的报道相吻合。但其花柱、柱头数均为3,同子房2室不相一致的矛盾现象,在已知的秋海棠属植物中极为罕见,该种是否起源于子房3室的秋海棠组(Sect. Begonia Linnaeus)还是由其它方式起源,有待进一步深入研究。栽培变色秋海棠时必须采取措施遮荫和保持较高的湿度,国外利用封闭式盆器栽培,效果很好。该种极易感染白粉病(powdery mildew)和猝倒病(damping off)(感染播种苗),危害严重,喷施白菌清和粉锈宁等多种杀菌剂可以起到很好的防治效果。变色秋海棠可用播种、扦插和组织培养等方式繁殖。播种约40天左右出苗,种子萌发率约60%,且出苗极不整齐;扦插常采用叶插,其中以锥形插(cone leaf cuttings)和楔形插法(wedge leaf cuttings)最可取;组织培养以固体MS+BA1+NAA0.1为发芽培养基和叶片作外植体比较适合,接种60天左右不经产生愈伤组织,直接分化出新芽。国外早已开展变色秋海棠的杂交育种工作,并培育出16个新品种,但国内者刚刚起步。试验结果表明,变色秋海棠的杂交亲合性很高,可以同本属中的其它许多种类成菌杂交,并将其美丽的叶斑在子代性状中部分表现出来,但与著名的球茎海棠(B. tuberhybrida Voss,为母本)杂交后,尚未获得完全成熟的种子。变色秋海棠作为一种新型的花卉资源,在国外以常参加秋海棠动植物展览并多次获奖。该种在杂交育种和新品种的选育方面的潜力很大,应该加以合理地开发、利用和保护。
其他摘要The studies of morphology, population biology, cytology, plant introduction, the prevention and control of diseases and pests, propagation, and crossbreeding on Begonia versicolor Irmscher are reported in this thesis. B. versicolor belongs to the section Platycentum Klotzsch of Begonia L. and Begoniaceae. It is a perennial evergreen creeping herb and has high ornamental value because of its colorful leaf variation. However, its wild resource is limited and it is only distributed in a few areas of Mengzi, Pingbian, Maguan, and Malipo in the southeast of Yunnan province. B. versicolor normally grows under evergreen broadleaf forest with high moist, shady and cool conditions. The most characters of B. versicolor are relatively conservative, especially some quality characters of reproductive organs, although the differentiation of some characteristics is showed in some ways. The big variation of its leaf color and streak in individuals probably is not the result of the change of chromosome numbers, but might be the influence of a series alleles, since cytological analysis shows that all the chromosome numbers of the individuals analyzed are 2n=22, which correspond to previous reports. The contradictory phenomenon of 3 style, stigma and 2 ovary is very infrequent in Begonia. Further studies are needed in order to indicate whether this species came from Section Begonia Linnaeus or not. Measures must be taken to keep a shady and moist condition when B. versicolor is cultivated. It is a good way of using contained atmospheres to grow B. versicolor. B. versicolor is easily affected by powdery mildew and damping off (for the seedlings) in cultivation. But it can be prevented and controlled effectively by spraying funguncides of chlorothalonil, triadimefon and suchlike. B. versicolor can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and tissue culture. Sixty percent of sowed seeds sprouted up unevenly in about 40 days. Cone leaf cuttings and wedge leaf cuttings are more applicable in leaf cuttings. Plantlets can be directly introduced from leaf explant by tissue culture in a solid medium of MS+BA1+NAA0.1 in about 60 days without producing callus. Many hybridizations on B. versicolor have been done and 16 new cultivars were obtained in abroad. The results of our experiments show that B. versicolor has high cross-compatibility and it is possible to hybridize successfully with many other species and the first filial generation expressed partially the colorful leafspots. But mature seeds of a hybrid with B. tuberhybrida(♀) have not been achieved yet. As a new type of ornamental plant, B. versicolor has won prizes for several times in Begonia shows in abroad. The species has a great potential in breeding new cultivars. It should be exploited, utilized and protected properly.
页数58
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/506
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
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田代科. 变色秋海棠的园艺学研究[D]. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,1999.
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