滇西北药用植物资源可持续管理研究--云南省丽江县鲁甸村定点研究报告
王雨华
学位类型博士
导师裴盛基
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物所
学位授予地点昆明植物所
学位专业民族植物学
关键词药用植物资源 可持续管理 传统知识 市场
摘要药用植物资源的可持续利用不仅关系到人类子孙后代健康新药的开发,也关系到当地民族社区的生计、经济收入、健康保健和民族传统文化。随着人口的增长、森林的破坏和环境的退化,传统药用植物资源趋向枯竭,民族民间传统药用植物学知识趋于消亡,合理利用药用植物资源,保护传统民族民间传统医药知识成为民族植物学研究的最重要研究课题之一。滇西北是世界上生物多样性最高的地区之一,蕴藏了丰富的药用植物资源和大量的名贵特有药材,具有“药材之乡“的美名。该地药用植物资源的高度多样性主要表现在生境多样性、物种多样性和利用药用植物资源的民族传统知识的多样性上,体现出社会经济的重要性。本研究选择曾是丽江地区生要的药材生产基地丽江县鲁甸行政村作为定点研究,以民族植物学研究方法为基础结合参与性农村评估、地理信息系统和数据库建立等现代科学技术和手段,对鲁甸药用植物资源进行了系统调查和定量分析,从而对药用植物资源可持续管理进行详细的探讨。两年来的研究共调查采集证据标本91科255属363种,发现综合价值最高的6种,较高的有123种;濒危种22种,威胁种167种。该地药用植物资源管理的不可持续现象主要表现在野生药用植物资源的枯竭、大宗药材种植的逐年减少、药材种植场的倒闭以及药用植物知识的两极分化。其主要原因是生境的破坏、人口的增长、经济上的贫困化、资源权属的变化、管理法规的不健全以及市场体系的不完善。通过对拉美荣药材种植场倒闭的剖析、不同人群与药用植物知识关系的分析和大理三月街传统药材市场的调查发现市场导向是影响药用植物资源可持续管理的重要环节。研究最后围绕市场经济这一中心对鲁甸药用植物资源的可持续管理提出了以下建议:建立药用植物资源管理信息系统;继承和发扬传统药用植物资源可持续利用和保护措施;建立药材栽培基地;生建立拉美荣红用植物标本园,加强物种多样性保护和人工培育;以市场为导向建立全面的药用植物市场信息系统;建立若干专类药用植物生境保护区,制定就地保护的管理办法。
其他摘要The sustainable use of medicinal plant resources is not only relevant to development of new drugs for the health of our next generations, but also to local livelihood, cash income, healthcare and ethnic culture. With population growth, deforestation and environmental degradation, the traditional medicinal plant resources trends to be depleted, and its indigenous knowledge related to medicinal plants seems to be eroded also. Therefore how to rationally use medicinal plant resources and conserve indigenous medicinal knowledge become one of the most important research topics for ethnobotanical studies. Northwest Yunnan is one of the greatest biodiversity regions in the world where is rich in medicinal plant resources and endemic medicinal plants, called 'the home of medicinal plants'. The high diversity of medicinal plants reflects in the diversity of habitats, species diversity and diversity of indigenous knowledge and practices related to medicinal plants and its sociocultural importance in the local ethnic societies. This study has selected Ludian Administrative Village of Lijiang County for case study where used to be important cultivation base for medicinal plants in Lijiang Prefecture. The research has applied ethnobotany methodology as a foundation to integrate with Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Geographic Information System (GIS), development of database and other methods to systematically investigate and quantitatively assess the medicinal plant resource (MPR), and explore the sustainable management of MPR in Ludian. During two years study, a total of 363 species belonging to 255 genera in 91 families with voucher specimens have been collected and documented, in which 6 species have the highest integrated value, 123 species with higher integrated value; 22 species are endangered, 167 species are threatened. The unsustainable management of medicinal plant resources manifests in the depletion of the wild medicinal plants, decreasing cultivation of medicinal plants, collapse of Lameirong Herb Plantation, and polarization of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants, which resulted from the destruction of natural habitats, population growth (for agricultural land), the poverty, the change of resource tenure, improper regulations, and unstable marketing system. The study found that market-driven is the important factor for sustainable management of MPR based on analysis the closing-down of Lameirong Herb Plantation, the relationship between different people and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants, and market survey of crude drug during Dali March Festival. The study has proposed also the following recommendations based on market-centered sustainable management of medicinal plant resources in Ludian: a) to set up an information system for MPR management; b) to revive the indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable use and protection of MPR; c) to establish herb cultivated base; d) to rehabilitate Lameirong Herb Garden for enhancing the biodiversity and the domestication of medicinal plants; e) to develop a market information system for medicinal plants based on marketing analysis, and f) to protect natural habitats for endemic medicinal plants through establishment of local rules and norms.
页数115
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/504
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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王雨华. 滇西北药用植物资源可持续管理研究--云南省丽江县鲁甸村定点研究报告[D]. 昆明植物所. 中国科学院昆明植物所,1999.
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