中国科学院昆明植物研究所机构知识库
Advanced  
KIB OpenIR  > 昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文  > 学位论文
题名: 中国广义粉孢牛肝菌属的分类及该属的系统学研究-兼论色钉菇属的分类及生物地理学
作者: 李艳春
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-05-21
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 杨祝良
关键词: 牛肝菌科 ; 新分类群 ; 分子系统发育 ; 生物地理学
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本文利用核基因nLSU、线粒体基因mtSSU、mtLSU和atp6四个基因片段及形态解剖特征对牛肝菌目(Boletales)下牛肝菌科(Boletaceae)中广义粉孢牛肝菌属(Tylopilus s. l.)进行了研究,揭示了广义粉孢牛肝菌属内各类群的亲缘关系及系统位置。另外,对牛肝菌目中子实层为菌褶的类群铆钉菇科(Gomphidiaceae)的色钉菇属(Chroogomphus)进行了分类学和基于ITS片段的分子系统学研究。本文对这两个属800余份标本进行了形态解剖学的研究。同时,进行了分子系统发育学的研究,共获得序列193条。成立5个新属,发现16个新种,提出19个新组合。主要的研究结果如下: 1、广义粉孢牛肝菌属的分子系统发育及分类学研究 在分子系统发育研究中,运用最大简约法、贝叶斯法对广义粉孢牛肝菌属的4个基因片段:核糖体大亚基nLSU、线粒体大亚基mtLSU、线粒体小亚基mtSSU和线粒体atp6基因,进行了独立和联合分析。分析的结果显示,广义粉孢牛肝菌属并不是一个单系类群,该属粉孢牛肝菌亚属的一些种类形成了一个单系类群,代表了狭义粉孢牛肝菌属的种类,还有一些种类嵌套在牛肝菌科其他属所属的分支内,或形成独立的分支;红孢牛肝菌亚属的种类聚在一起,且独立于狭义粉孢牛肝菌属之外,结合形态学的数据,我们认为将红孢亚属做为一个属,即红孢牛肝菌属,更为合理;红疣亚属的种类独立于粉孢牛肝菌属之外,且分属于三个不同的分支,并得到了较高的支持率。 基于上述分析结果,广义粉孢牛肝菌属至少可以划分为11个分支。结合形态解剖学的研究结果发现,该属至少代表了11个属,包括本研究建立的5个新属,即:臧氏牛肝菌属Zangia Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、黄柄牛肝菌属Chromoboletus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、裘氏牛肝菌属Chiua Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、拟粉孢牛肝菌属Abtylopilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang及拟绒盖牛肝菌属Pseudoxerocomus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和过去已经分出的6个属,即:粘盖牛肝菌属Mucilopilus Wolfe、红孢牛肝菌属Porphyrellus E.-J. Gilbert、网柄牛肝菌属Retiboletus Manfr. Binder & Bresinsky、玉红牛肝菌属Rubinoboletus Pilát & Dermek、狭义粉孢牛肝菌属Tylopilus P. Karst. s. str.、垂边红孢牛肝菌属Veloporphyrellus L.D. Gómez & Singer。不同属之间在菌盖表皮结构、菌肉颜色、地理分布及共生树种等方面存在较大的差异。各个属在我国西南地区发现的分类群数量为:(1)臧氏牛肝菌属7种,其中5个新种,即:橙黄臧氏牛肝菌Z. citrina Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、血红臧氏牛肝菌Z. erythra Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、橄榄臧氏牛肝菌Z olivacea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、橄榄红臧氏牛肝菌Z. olivococcinea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和棕绿臧氏牛肝菌Z. pseudovirens Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang,2个新组合,即:变蓝臧氏牛肝菌Z. chlorinosma (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和臧氏牛肝菌Z. roseola (W. F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(2)黄柄牛肝菌属8种,其中6新种,即:紫黄柄牛肝菌Chr. purpureus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、尾鞭黄柄牛肝菌Chr. flagelliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、珠鳞黄柄牛肝菌Chr. moniliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、灰黄柄牛肝菌Chr. griseus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、灰橄榄黄柄牛肝菌Chr. griseo-olivaceous Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和灰绿黄柄牛肝菌Chr. viridifumeus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang,2新组合,即:东亚黄柄牛肝菌Chr. hongoi (Frost) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和拟黄柄牛肝菌Chr. propriorichromapes (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(3)裘氏牛肝菌属2种,为2新组合,即:裘氏粉孢牛肝Ch. virens (W.F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang和小裘氏牛肝菌Ch. nana (Massee) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(4)拟粉孢牛肝菌属1种,为1新组合,即:拟粉孢牛肝菌A. eximius (Peck) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(5)拟绒盖牛肝菌属1种,为1新种,即:P. griseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(6)粘盖牛肝菌属1种;(7)红孢牛肝菌属7种,其中3新组合,即:红褐红孢牛肝菌P. brunneirubens (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、烟褐红孢牛肝菌P. holophaeus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、黑紫红孢牛肝菌P. nigropurpureus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(8)网柄牛肝菌属2种,其中1新组合,即:Re. brunneus (McNabb) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang;(9)玉红牛肝菌属1种;(10)狭义粉孢牛肝菌属5种;(11)垂边红孢牛肝菌属1种,为1新组合,即:Ve. Velatus (Rostr.) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang。 2、色钉菇属的分类学、分子系统发育及生物地理学研究 通过对中国、俄罗斯、德国、美国及捷克色钉菇属标本形态解剖学和分子系统发育学的研究,发现我国共有色钉菇属真菌7种,并对这7个种进行了绘图及描述,其中4个新种,即:易混色钉菇C. confusus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、细鳞色钉菇C. filiformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、东方色钉菇C. orientirutilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang、粉红色钉菇C. roseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang,2个新记录种,即:拟绒盖色钉菇C. pseudotomentosus、灰紫色钉菇C. purpurascens。另外,提出了一个新组合,即:C. albipes (Zeller) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang。 分子系统发育学的研究结果表明:(1)色钉菇属作为一个单系类群得到了较好的支持,但过去依据形态特征对该属进行的组的划分并没有得到分子系统发育学研究结果的支持。(2)该属真菌在北半球的地理分化明显,多数物种的分布区都较狭窄,但洲际间断分布的物种确实存在,在东亚和中欧,C. rutilus 和 C. purpurascens为同域分布物种,但各自的宿主不同;东亚和北美具有成对种或系统演化密切近缘的种对;(3)在色钉菇属真菌与其宿主松属(Pinus)植物的菌根协同演化中,宿主专一性逐渐加强,但具有明显亲缘关系的色钉菇属真菌在松属中两个亚属间曾发生过多次宿主转换。
英文摘要: The phylogenetic relationships of species in the genus Tylopilus s. l. were inferred using the nuclear gene (nLSU) and mitochondrial genes (mtSSU, mtLSU and atp6), and morpgology. Additionally, bolets with lamellae, i.e. Chroogomphus were studied based on the molecular and morphological characters. More than 900 collections were studied and 193 sequences were obtained. In this study, 5 new genera were erected, 16 species were described as new and 19 combinations were proposed. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of Tylopilus s. l. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of selected specimens of Tylopilus s. l. especially those of Tylopilus subgenus Roseoscabra revealed that the existence of at least 10 complexes significantly dissimilar to Tylopilus s. s. as represented by the type species T. felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. Thus, 11 genera were recognized, of which five were proposed in this thesis, they are Zangia Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chromoboletus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chiua Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Abtylopilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Pseudoxerocomus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. Six genera, i.e. Mucilopilus Wolfe, Porphyrellus E.-J. Gilbert, Retiboletus Manfr. Binder & Bresinsky, Rubinoboletus Pilát & Dermek, Tylopilus P. Karst. s. str., and Veloporphyrellus L.D. Gómez & Singer, were erected previousely. The new genera are different from Tylopilus s.str. in its pileipellis structure, the context color of the basidiomata, the color reaction when bruised, the host associations and the distribution ranges. Our analyses based on molecular and morphology data revealed the following results: (1) seven species were discovered in Zangia, including five new ones, i.e. Z. citrina Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. erythra Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. olivacea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. olivococcinea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. pseudovirens Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and two new combinations, i.e. Z. chlorinosma (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Z. roseola (W. F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (2) eight species were put in Chromoboletus, including six new ones, i.e. Chr. purpureus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. flagelliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. moniliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. griseus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. griseo-olivaceous Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Chr. viridifumeus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and two new combinations, i.e. Chr. hongoi (Frost) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Chr. propriorichromapes (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (3) two species were recognized in the genus Chiua, i.e. two new combinations, Ch. nana (Massee) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Ch. virens (W.F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (4) Abtylopilus was proposed to accommodate A. eximius (Peck) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (5) Pseudoxerocomus was erected to accommodate Ps. griseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (6) one species was recognized in Mucilopilus; (7) seven species were arranged in Porphyrellus, including three new combinations, i.e. P. brunneirubens (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, P. holophaeus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and P. nigropurpureus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (8) two species were recognized in the genus Retiboletus, including one new combination, i.e. Re. brunneus (McNabb) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (9) one species was recognized in Rubinoboletus; (10) Five species were arranged in the genus Tylopilus s. str.; and (11) one new combination was proposed in Veloporphyrellus, i.e. Ve. velatus (Rostr.) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. All of the newly described species were illustrated with line drawings. 2. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of Chroogomphus The relationships among species of the genus Chroogomphus collected from China, Russia, Germany, USA and the Czech were inferred from morphology and the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal gene cluster. 7 species were recognized from China, 4 are new to the science, i.e. C. confusus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, C. filiformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, C. orientirutilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and C. roseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. In addition, a new combination, C. albipes, was proposed, and a key to the Chroogomphus species from China is provided. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that: (1) the monophyly of Chroogomphus was well supported but a previous two-section infrageneric division of Chroogomphus is not valid; (2) Geographical divergences of Chroogomphus in the Northern Hemisphere were evident. Most species had relatively narrow distribution ranges, and taxa with intercontinental distributions are uncommon. In Far East Asia, C. rutilus had a sympatric distribution pattern as C. purpurascens. Between East Asia and North America vicariously paired or closely related species of Chroogomphus were present; and (3) During the co-evolution of Chroogomphus with its mycorrhizal hosts, host specificity generally increased yet host-switches between the two subgenera of Pinus took place.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/474
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
10001_200718010615003李艳春_paper.doc(67862KB)----限制开放-- 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
中国广义粉孢牛肝菌属的分类及该属的系统学研究-兼论色钉菇属的分类及生物地理学.李艳春[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[李艳春]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[李艳春]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2017  中国科学院昆明植物研究所 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace