|其他摘要||The phylogenetic relationships of species in the genus Tylopilus s. l. were inferred using the nuclear gene (nLSU) and mitochondrial genes (mtSSU, mtLSU and atp6), and morpgology. Additionally, bolets with lamellae, i.e. Chroogomphus were studied based on the molecular and morphological characters. More than 900 collections were studied and 193 sequences were obtained. In this study, 5 new genera were erected, 16 species were described as new and 19 combinations were proposed. The main results are summarized as follows:
1. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of Tylopilus s. l.
Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of selected specimens of Tylopilus s. l. especially those of Tylopilus subgenus Roseoscabra revealed that the existence of at least 10 complexes significantly dissimilar to Tylopilus s. s. as represented by the type species T. felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. Thus, 11 genera were recognized, of which five were proposed in this thesis, they are Zangia Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chromoboletus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chiua Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Abtylopilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Pseudoxerocomus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. Six genera, i.e. Mucilopilus Wolfe, Porphyrellus E.-J. Gilbert, Retiboletus Manfr. Binder & Bresinsky, Rubinoboletus Pilát & Dermek, Tylopilus P. Karst. s. str., and Veloporphyrellus L.D. Gómez & Singer, were erected previousely. The new genera are different from Tylopilus s.str. in its pileipellis structure, the context color of the basidiomata, the color reaction when bruised, the host associations and the distribution ranges.
Our analyses based on molecular and morphology data revealed the following results: (1) seven species were discovered in Zangia, including five new ones, i.e. Z. citrina Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. erythra Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. olivacea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. olivococcinea Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Z. pseudovirens Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and two new combinations, i.e. Z. chlorinosma (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Z. roseola (W. F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (2) eight species were put in Chromoboletus, including six new ones, i.e. Chr. purpureus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. flagelliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. moniliformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. griseus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, Chr. griseo-olivaceous Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Chr. viridifumeus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and two new combinations, i.e. Chr. hongoi (Frost) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Chr. propriorichromapes (Wolfe & Bougher) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (3) two species were recognized in the genus Chiua, i.e. two new combinations, Ch. nana (Massee) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and Ch. virens (W.F. Chiu) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (4) Abtylopilus was proposed to accommodate A. eximius (Peck) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (5) Pseudoxerocomus was erected to accommodate Ps. griseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (6) one species was recognized in Mucilopilus; (7) seven species were arranged in Porphyrellus, including three new combinations, i.e. P. brunneirubens (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, P. holophaeus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and P. nigropurpureus (Corner) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (8) two species were recognized in the genus Retiboletus, including one new combination, i.e. Re. brunneus (McNabb) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang; (9) one species was recognized in Rubinoboletus; (10) Five species were arranged in the genus Tylopilus s. str.; and (11) one new combination was proposed in Veloporphyrellus, i.e. Ve. velatus (Rostr.) Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. All of the newly described species were illustrated with line drawings.
2. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of Chroogomphus
The relationships among species of the genus Chroogomphus collected from China, Russia, Germany, USA and the Czech were inferred from morphology and the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal gene cluster. 7 species were recognized from China, 4 are new to the science, i.e. C. confusus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, C. filiformis Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, C. orientirutilus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang and C. roseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang. In addition, a new combination, C. albipes, was proposed, and a key to the Chroogomphus species from China is provided.
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that: (1) the monophyly of Chroogomphus was well supported but a previous two-section infrageneric division of Chroogomphus is not valid; (2) Geographical divergences of Chroogomphus in the Northern Hemisphere were evident. Most species had relatively narrow distribution ranges, and taxa with intercontinental distributions are uncommon. In Far East Asia, C. rutilus had a sympatric distribution pattern as C. purpurascens. Between East Asia and North America vicariously paired or closely related species of Chroogomphus were present; and (3) During the co-evolution of Chroogomphus with its mycorrhizal hosts, host specificity generally increased yet host-switches between the two subgenera of Pinus took place.|