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题名: 草果种植对社区经济、森林物种和土壤肥力的影响
作者: 郭婧琦
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2009-05-20
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 王慷林
关键词: 草果 ; 生物多样性 ; 可持续性 ; 土壤养分 ; 产量
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 草果(Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemare)是姜科(Zingiberaceae)豆蔻属的多年生草本植物,生长在亚热带多雨森林地带,主要分布在云南、广西和贵州三省局部地区,以及越南、老挝北部的部分地区。在云南主产于南部、东南部和西南部。其中发展最快,产量最高的是红河州的金平县。但目前存在的粗放经营管理模式与社区经济发展、草果种植林内生物多样性和土壤肥力的维持之间的矛盾日益显著。 本研究通过对金平县大寨乡河头、碗厂、大秧田、高家寨和灰竹箐5个村寨进行草果民族生态学的调查研究,探讨草果人工种植对自然保护区周边社区群众生计、以及对物种多样性和土壤养分的影响,为相似地区草果的可持续发展模式、天然林退种草果后的生态环境恢复提供理论依据。 1、草果种植对社区经济的影响 草果作为研究区主要的经济作物,被广泛种植,是当地农户主要现金收入来源,均占年收入的50%以上。研究表明,(1)位于自然保护区的草果地产量明显高于保护区外的草果地;(2)草果种植地的管理是非常粗放,因此技术的推广是非常必要的;(3)由于大量的草果种植仍然在保护区内,因此草果种植与保护区的冲突一直存在,并影响草果的产出。所以,在自然保护区外进行草果种植,可通过提高草果产量达到可持续的生计支持,进而减少冲突;(4)大多数社区仍缺少草果培育的网络支持,限制了农户间的资料和技术交流。 2、草果种植对物种多样性影响 对种植草果的天然林片断与未种植草果的天然林地的植物进行调查、编目与比较分析,结果:(1)在天然林、草果幼年期、成年期和衰老期的草果林地内分别发现乔灌木28、18、10和12种;上述林地内的草本植物分别为23、29、18和25种;(2)不同草果发育期乔灌木层的盖度在32.5~40.0%之间变动,与相邻天然林的盖度(73.3%)间差异显著;(3)随着种植时间的延长,乔灌层植物株数明显下降,乔灌层物种数趋向单一,主要保留旱冬瓜(Alnus nepalensis)作为草果的遮荫树种;(4)草果发育的幼年期(13种)和成年期(12种)草本层物种数相近,而衰老期(8种)与天然林(9种)的种数也较为相近;草本层株数在草果发育不同时期在92~480株间的波动,其中衰老期(201株)的草本层株数与天然林(229株)接近;(5)幼年期、成年期和衰老期的乔灌层Shannon-Wiener指数(分别为1.0520、1.2142、0.8775)远低于天然林(2.3610),但草本层的Simpson指数在各阶段与天然林地没有显著的差异。 3、草果种植对林地土壤养分的影响 通过比较不同种植时期草果种植林下各土层养分的变化,分析了草果种植对林地土壤养分的影响。结果表明:(1)种植草果后,林下表层和底层土壤中除全P、全K、速效N外,有机质、全N、速效P、速效K含量均与底层土壤差异显著(P<0.05)。(2)有机质、全N、全P、速效K随着草果种植年限而变化,通常这些成分在草果种植的幼年和成年期要低于衰老期和天然林;(3)土壤表层的全K和速效N逐年富集,土壤底层的速效N含量也逐渐恢复。 为了维持天然林的可持续性和稳定性,恢复天然林下退化生态系统,应将天然林下的草果园退出经营,并建议在人工地发展种植草果。
英文摘要: Amomum tsao-ko is a perennial herb of Zingiberaceae, which grows in subtropical area with much of rainy forests, mainly distributing in partial areas of Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou Province, and the north of Vietnam, Laos. The species mainly grows in south, southeast and southwest in Yunnan Province. The maximum output of A. tsao-ko is in Jinping County, Honghe Prefecture in Yunnan. However, there was contradiction between developing community economy and decreasing plant diversity and soil fertility in forests because of extensive management of A. tsao-ko plantations. The presented paper was attempted to discuss the effects of cultivating Amomum tsao-ko on local community economy, plant biodiversity and soil fertility in the forests based on investigated data from Hetou, Wanchang, Dayangtian, Gaojiazhai, Huizhuqing communities. The purpose of study results was to offer theoretical basis for sustainable development of the plantations in A. tsao-ko distribution areas. 1 Effects of Planting A. tsao-ko on Community Economy A. tsao-ko, an economically important cash crop, was planted in a large-scale area, which is the primary household income with more than 50% of annually family income in the study communities. The results indicated that: (1) The yield of A. tsao-ko plantations in the Nature Reserve (NR) was obviously higher than of which outside the NR; (2) managed level A. tsao-ko plantations was very extensive in most households. Thus, the management technological dissemination was needed in order to increase A. tsao-ko yield in the study area; (3) the conflict between A. tsao-ko plantation development and the NR conservation was evermore existed since most plantations located in the NR, which would impact A. tsao-ko output. Therefore, gradually establishing A. tsao-ko plantation outside of the NR should be the way of thoroughly solving conflict between A. tsao-ko development and NR resource conservation, which also the way of maintaining sustainable livelihood by increasing CC yield; (4) there was no a network between A. tsao-ko cultivation households in most communities, which confined information and technology dissemination between the farmer households. 2 Influence of A. tsao-ko Plantation on Plant Diversity Through investigating, inventorying and comparing floral species and their number between woodland segments of natural forests and Amomum tsao-ko plantations, it was found that: (1) there were 28, 18, 10 and 12 arbor and shrub species, and 23, 29, 18 and 25 herbaceous species in the natural forest, A. tsao-ko plantations of juvenile, mature and senile phase, respectively; (2) the coverage of overstorey canopy (including arbor and shrub crown) was 32.5~40.0% for different growing phases of A. tsao-ko plantations, which had significant differences with which of the contiguous natural forests (73.3%); (3) with aging of A. tsao-ko plantations, individual number of overstorey was gradually decreased, Alnus nepalensis was as a great shading species kept in the A. tsao-ko plantation; (4) there were almost the same herbaceous species between the plantations of the juvenile phase (13 species) and the mature phase (12 species), the same of between the senile phase (8 species) and the nature forests (9 species). individual number of herbaceous plants was varied from 92 to 480 in different growing phases of A. tsao-ko plantations. The individual in the senile plantation (201 individuals) was similar to which in the natural forests (229 individuals); (5) the Shannon-Wiener index of arbors and shrubs species in the juvenile, mature and senile A. tsao-ko plantations (1.0520, 1.2142 and 0.8775, respectively) was lower than which in the natural forests (2.3610), while there were no significant differences for Simpson index of herbaceous species within the different growing phases of A. tsao-ko plantations and the natural forests. 3 Influence of A. tsao-ko Plantation on Soil Nutrients Comparing soil nutrient change between different layer for different growing ages of A tsao-ko plantations, of results showed that: (1) there were significant differences for the contents of organic matter, total N, available P and K (P<0.05) between upper (0-20cm) and low (>20cm) soil layers, while there were no significant differences of total P and K, available N between these two soil layers; (2) organic matter, total N, total P and available K dynamically changed with differing in growing phases of A. tsao-ko plantation. Generally, these nutrient content was lower in the plantations of juvenile and mature phases than which of in the senile phase and natural forests; (3) total K and available N were annually enriched in the upper soil layer, and available N was gradually restored in bottom soil layer as well. In order to maintaining the sustainability and stability of natural forest ecosystem, A. tsao-ko was suggested to be transformed to artificial forests from the natural forests.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/450
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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草果种植对社区经济、森林物种和土壤肥力的影响.郭婧琦[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
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