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题名: 杏黄兜兰(Paphiopedilum armeniacum)的花发育
作者: 皮秋霞
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2009-05-27
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 胡虹
关键词: 杏黄兜兰 ; 克隆芽 ; 花发育 ; 形态解剖 ; 引种栽培 ; 夜温 ; 开花
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 杏黄兜兰(Paphiopedium armeniacum S.C.Chen & F.Y. Liu)隶属兰科( Orchidaceae) 杓兰亚科(subfam.cypripedioideae) 兜兰属(Paphiopedilum),其花形奇色艳,是著名的观赏兰花之一。由于野生杏黄兜兰面临巨大的采集压力,兼之生境破坏严重,杏黄兜兰已被列为濒危物种。为了保护野生杏黄兜兰,并满足人们对杏黄兜兰的需求,本研究组对杏黄兜兰进行了人工繁育,目前种子萌发及种苗栽培都已取得了成功,部分实生苗已开花结实,但同时也发现实生苗在温室中开花不整齐,主要表现在同批种子苗开花所用年限不同,以及有小部分植株的花期落在自然花期外。这些问题影响了对杏黄兜兰的进一步开发,因此有必要了解杏黄兜兰花发育的过程,为进一步对杏黄兜兰进行花期调控提供一定的理论基础和实践指导。 本文通过观察、测量、解剖研究了杏黄兜兰克隆芽在第一年的生长过程并统计了克隆芽开花所需的叶片数和叶面积;通过形态解剖研究了杏黄兜兰花芽形成的过程;通过控夜温实验研究了夜温对已形成花芽的杏黄兜兰开花的影响。由以上研究得出如下结论: (1) 杏黄兜兰的克隆芽集中于母株开花前后出现,母株一般产生1-2个克隆芽,克隆芽在第一年只进行营养生长,但是在第二年内,叶片数目达到4片或以上,且总叶面积达到一定大小的克隆芽可转入生殖生长,产生花芽。推测光合产物的生产和积累对克隆芽能否转入生殖生长起着制约作用。 (2) 花后摘花植株、花自然凋谢植株、花后结实植株产生克隆芽的比率有显著差异,其中以花后摘花株比率最高,而结实株比率最低,这说明结实杏黄兜兰将母株的营养积累对有性繁殖和无性繁殖都具有重要的作用,而有性繁殖和无性繁殖之间存在着权衡关系。 (3) 杏黄兜兰在5月份由营养生长转入生殖生长,6-7月份发育出花序鞘,7-8月份发育出苞片,8月底至9月,杏黄兜兰进行花器官的形态分化。花器官分化完成后,花芽进入快速生长阶段,在生长过程中因为各部分的相对生长速率和生长方向不同,花的形态发生改变。次年2-4月杏黄兜兰开花。 (4) 根据不同时期引种植株产生花芽的结果推测,杏黄兜兰在8月初尚未进入花器官决定阶段,因此在引种后不能分化花器官;至8月中有部分发育较早的植株完成花器官决定,受到引种干扰后,花器官形成推迟但已不可逆转;至9月初大部分植株已完成花器官决定,开始或完成花器官分化。 (5) 对花器官已完成分化的杏黄兜兰而言,在一定的温度范围内,夜温越高,处理的时间越长,杏黄兜兰开花越早,且开花率及花朵质量不受夜温和处理时间的影响。解剖发现了花器官分化不正常的花芽,因此认为杏黄兜兰最终能否正常开花在花器官分化阶段就已经决定,其后的温度高低只会影响开花所需的时间。
英文摘要: P.armeniacum S.C.Chen & F.Y. Liu belongs to the genus Paphiopedilum Pfitz, of Subfam. Cypripedioideae of Orchidaceace. This species bears golden-yellow flower with a special shape, so it is a very famous ornamental orchid. Because the wild P. armeniacum always has been facing with the severe collecting stress, and in addition lots of its habitats have been ruined by certain reasons, the P. armeniacum has been listed in the endangered species. To protect wild P. armeniacum, and also to satisfy people’s demand of P. armeniacum, our research group has started artificial propagation and breeding of the P. armeniacum. Now its seed is germinated and seedlings is cultivated successfully, and some satus plants flowered. But it discovered the satus plants used different years to flower, and some plants flowered out of its natural flower period. These questions will have adverse influence to the further development of P. armeniacum, so it is necessary to find out the flower development process of P.armeniacum. It’s expected that based on the settlement of this question, new theoretic foundation and practice direction can be made for the further flowering control research. In this paper, first, the growth of clone bud of P.armeniacum were traced by observing and measuring and anatomizing, and the leaf number and leaf area were analysed to understand the nutrition it required for its transition from vegatative into reproductive; second, the development of flower bud of P.armeniacum were investigated continually using anatomical method; third, after the flower organs formed, a primary research were done to discover whether the night temperature has any influence to flower. Through the above mentioned work, the following results were gained: (1). The clone bud of P.armeniacum was usually emerged around the flowering time. A mother plant often produce 1-2 clone buds. In the first year, the clone bud only made vegetative growth. While in the second year, some plants which had 4 or more leaf , and reached certain leaf area would produce flower bud. It hinted the nutrition accumulation maybe a limiting fator to decide whether the clone bud can transfer into reproductive growth. (2). The ratio of mother plants to clone buds had significant difference in the defloration plants, plants which flower wither naturally, and the fruiting plants, the ratio of deloration plants is the hightest, the fruiting plants is the lowest. It indicated the fruiting plants transported its nutrition to fruit first, as a result the produce of clone bud was inhabited. (3). P.armeniacum developed inflorescence primodium in May, and sheath in June and July; and bract in July and August; then until at the end of August and September, the flower organs were developed. After that, the flower bud kept on growing. Because of the different relative growth rate and growth direction, the morphology of flower had great change. (4). From the flower bud produced by plant replanted in different period, following conclusions were concluded: in the early of August, P.armeniacum didn’t finished flower decision, after it was distured, it can not differentiat flower organs; in the middle of August, some plants which developed earlier than others finished the flower decision , after it was disturbed it developed flower organs later than the normal, but not reversed ; then in the early of September , most of plants finished flower decision , and began or finished differentiation of flower organs. (5). To the individuals which flower organs were formed, within certain scope, the higher the night temperature was, the longer the treating time was, the earlier the plants would flower, while the flowering ratio and flower quality were not affected by different treatment. Through anatomy, it found some abnormally differentiated flower buds, so it thought that whether the P.armeniacum can flower normally were decided by the differentiation process, after that the temperature can only influence how long it will take to flower.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/434
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杏黄兜兰(Paphiopedilum armeniacum)的花发育.皮秋霞[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
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