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题名: 幌菊的植物地理学研究
作者: 董朝辉
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2009-05-25
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 彭华
关键词: 幌菊 ; 谱系地理学 ; 遗传多样性和遗传结构
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 幌菊属(Ellisiophyllum)是一个单种属,只有幌菊(Ellisiophyllum pinnatum)一个种。该属分布于印度、尼泊尔、不丹、日本、菲律宾、巴布亚新几内亚和中国。在中国具体分布于云南、四川西部、广西西部、贵州东南部、重庆、甘肃南部、河北南部、湖北西部、西藏南部和台湾。本文在对幌菊进行生物学习性与传粉初步观察研究的基础上,深入探讨了幌菊的谱系地理学和遗传多样性,从居群水平上揭示了幌菊遗传多样性和遗传结构及其影响因素。最后,本文还简要讨论了幌菊及其相关物种与云南古夷平面的相关性。主要研究结果如下: 1. 生物学习性与传粉初步观察 幌菊是一种喜荫的匍匐草本,分布的海拔高度为850-2800米。对石林圭山居群进行了传粉生态学初步研究,控制授粉实验表明:幌菊自花、异花授粉都可以结实,风媒和虫媒都是其传粉的媒介,并且不借助于任何媒介,它也可以自交结实。昆虫访花实验表明,主要访花昆虫有三种,分属双翅目和膜翅目。幌菊单花持续期为3-4天,雄蕊持续期为1-2天,雌蕊持续期为2.5-3.5天。 2. 谱系地理学 利用两个cpDNA片段trnS-trnG和trnT-trnL序列对幌菊15个居群146个个体进行谱系地理分析结果表明,幌菊的cpDNA多样性很高 (hT=0.971),居群内没有遗传分化,居群间遗传分化为GST=1。研究中发现13个单倍型,除了文山居群、富民居群和雷山居群共享一个单倍型外,其它居群各自拥有独特的单倍型,单倍型高度结构化。同时,地理距离相隔很远的西藏居群和湖北居群,在单倍型进化上却分化很小。我们认为幌菊形成这种谱系地理模式的原因可能是:①幌菊是一个古老物种,经历了相当长的演化历史;②低效的种子传播方式;③幌菊在向外扩散过程中,可能发生了随机因素导致的长距离扩散。 3. 基于AFLP分子标记的遗传分析 通过对15个居群147个个体的AFLP分析,结果表明幌菊的遗传多样性比较高。漫长的进化历史和广布的分布区可能是幌菊具有较高的遗传多样性的原因。另外,幌菊居群间遗传分化较大(GST=0.6656),而导致这种情况发生的原因可能是居群间地理距离隔离、分布区内复杂的地形条件、自交占很大比重的繁育系统和第四纪气候变化导致其生境的片段化。 4. 幌菊及其相关物种与云南古夷平面的相关性 生理生态学的原则是随着纬度的升高,物种分布的海拔高度将随之降低。本组以前曾证明过一些物种在云南的分布却与该原则恰好相反,与云南残留的古夷平面的分布相似,即随着纬度的升高,其分布的海拔高度也随之升高。但是,这些物种的分布在超出云南高原之后,就又符合了生理生态学原则,如幌菊和一些传统上同属玄参科的广布种类。深入证明相关物种在云南境内的分布受古夷平面的影响很大。另外,根据分布区形成的原则,这些地理成分的发生应早于古夷平面的隆起。古夷平面与幌菊的分子生物地理的联系需要今后在云南发现更多的分布点方可实现。
英文摘要: Ellisiophyllum pinnatum is the only species in the Genus Ellisiophyllum. The distribution range of the genus covers India, Bhutan, Nepal, Japan, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and China. In China, it distributes in Yunnan, western Sichuan, Chongqing, southeastern Guizhou, western Guangxi, southern Xizang, southern Gansu, southern Hebei, western Hubei and Taiwan. Thorough study on its phylogeography and genetic diversity were made based on preliminary study on biological habits and preliminary observation on pollination of E. pinnatum, and genetic diversity, genetic structure at population level and the factors influencing them were revealed. The comprehensive studies, phylogeographical analysis based on DNA sequence and genetic diversity analysis based on molecular marker (AFLP), were also carried out on E. pinnatum. Finally, the correlation between the distribution of some associated species including E. pinnatum and Yunnan ancient planation surface was briefly discussed here. The main results were as follows: 1. Biological habits and preliminary observation on pollination E. pinnatum is perennial herb, stoloniferous, distributed from alt. 850 m to 2800 m. The results of anthecology of SL(Shilin) population showed that E. pinnatum was pollinated by insects and wind. Both self-pollination and cross-pollination can bear fruit. What’s more, it also can bear fruit without any pollinators. The main insects recorded as flower-visitors were from the Order Diptera and the Order Hymenoptera. The anthesis of single flower, pistil and stamen were 3-4 d, 2.5-3.5 d, and 1-2 d respectively. 2. Phylogeography Based on trnS-trnG and trnT-trnL sequences data of 15 populations of E. pinnatum, the study of phylogeography revealed that E. pinnatum had high genetic diversity (hT=0.971) and high genetic differentiation (GST=1) among populations, with no differentiation within population. There were 13 haplotypes in 15 populations. WS, FM and LS shared one haplotype while the others had their own unique haplotype, which indicated that the haplotypes were highly structured. Meanwhile, the geographic distance between LC population and XZ population was far whereas the differentiation in haplotype evolution was insignificant. The following reasons are proposed to explain the phylogeographic pattern: 1) E. pinnatum is an ancient species with long evolutional history; 2) the pattern of seed dispersion was inefficient; 3) random factors likely contributed to long distance dispersion. 3. Genetic analysis based on molecular marker (AFLP) Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of 147 individuals from 15 populations showed that this species had high genetic diversity. Long evolutional history and wide distribution might make important contribution to its high genetic diversity. E. pinnatum was highly differentiated with GST=0.6656. The main reasons for the high differentiation were as follows: 1) population isolation caused by long distance and topographic condition; 2) important role of self-cross in its breeding system; 3) habitat fragmentation resulting from the climatic vicissitudes of the Quaternary period. 4. Correlation between the distribution of E. pinnatum with related species and Yunnan Acient Planation Surface Based on the principle of Eco-physiology, the distribution altitude of plants will decline with the increase of latitude. However, the distribution of many species in Yunnan is inconsistent with the principle. Their distribution in Yunan is similar to the distribution of Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface. That is to say, there is a positive correlation between the altitude and the latitude of its distribution. But as the range of the species exceed the Yunnan plateau, its distribution is still consistent with the principle of Eco-physiology, such as the E. pinnatum and some spices of Scrophulariaceae. This indicated that the species’ distribution in Yunnan had been extremely influenced by the Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface. At last, the origin of the characteristic elements should be earlier than the uplift of Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface according to the principle of formation of the distribution area. More knowledge about the distribution of the E. pinnatum is needed to get the correlation of the E. pinnatum and the Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/432
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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幌菊的植物地理学研究.董朝辉[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
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