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题名: 四种民族药用植物化学成分的研究
作者: 谭钦刚
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-05-22
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 罗晓东
关键词: 两头毛 ; 蓖麻 ; 圆叶节节菜 ; 苦楝 ; 化学成分 ; 四降三萜
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本论文共包括五章。第一章论述了彝药两头毛化学成分及新化合物的抗炎活性研究。第二至四章分别论述了傣药蓖麻,圆叶节节菜和苦楝的化学成分研究。第五章综述了近50年来楝科中的四降三萜化合物及其生物活性,合成等。 通过多种分离技术(柱层析,凝胶等)和波谱鉴定方法,从以上四种民族药用植物中共分离得到76个化合物,涉及到萜类、黄酮、香豆素、生物碱、甾体等。其中新化合物14个:1个螺环倍半萜,1个拓扑酚类,1个megastigmane型化合物,2个卡斯烷型二萜,6个三萜(其中包括1个四降三萜),2个孕甾型和1个麦角甾型甾体。 第一章 彝药两头毛的化学成分研究 两头毛(Incarvillea arguta (Royle) Royle)被彝民称作“利拉维”、“瓦布友”、“朝天贯”,民间又称肝炎草,其全草提取物经临床验证为主治肝炎、菌痢等急性传染病的有效药物,在云南,四川的彝族聚居区有着悠久的应用历史。我们从两头毛地上部分甲醇提取物的乙酸乙酯层中共分离得到19个化合物,其中1个新的Spirovetivane型倍半萜,该化合物对Cox-1和Cox-2显示较强的体外抗炎活性。 第二章 傣药蓖麻的化学成分研究 蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)的傣药名为“麻烘娘”,“麻烘嘿亮”,在云南西双版纳傣族聚居区,蓖麻主要用于治疗黄疸性肝炎。现代研究表明,蓖麻有抗肿瘤,抗艾滋病毒,降血压及抑制呼吸的作用。我们从蓖麻的地上部分(果实除外)甲醇提取物的乙酸乙酯层中共分离得到22个化合物,包括4个新化合物:1个拓扑酚类,2个卡斯烷型大环二萜,1个羽扇豆烷型三萜。 第三章 傣药圆叶节节菜的化学成分研究 圆叶节节菜(Rotala rotundifolia (Buch.-Ham.exRoxb) Koehne)的傣族名为“蜜蜂花”、“牙罗喷”,民间药用全草,傣医主要用于治疗疮疖,痈,风湿,关节痛等疾病;抑菌试验表明,圆叶节节菜对金黄色葡萄球菌,伤寒杆菌,大肠杆菌及白喉杆菌等均有抑制作用。该种的化学成分未见报道。我们从圆叶节节菜地上部分甲醇提取物的乙酸乙酯层中共分离得到9个化合物,包括1个新的含降异戊二烯单元的化合物。 第四章 傣药苦楝的化学成分研究 苦楝(Melia azedarach L.)皮的煎剂或醇提取物均对猪蛔虫有抑制以至麻痹作用,其有效成分是川楝素。大剂量的川楝素能引起大鼠呼吸衰竭。川楝素对肉毒中毒动物具有治疗作用,对大鼠有不可逆地阻遏间接刺激引起的肌肉收缩。我们从苦楝的树皮乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯层中共分离得到26个化合物,其中包括8个新化合物:4个甘遂烷型三萜,1个meliacarpinin型四降三萜,2个孕甾烷,1个麦角甾型化合物。 第五章 楝科中的四降三萜:化学及生物活性(综述) 本章综述了1961年至2007年从楝科中分离得到的891个四降三萜,按照环的裂解方式划分为11个亚类型。还对四降三萜的合成,生物活性进行了综述。
英文摘要: Five chapters are included in this dissertation. The first chapter presented the investigation on chemical constituents from ‘Yi’ ethno-medicinal plants Incarvillea arguta and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the new compound. From the second to fourth chapter, the chemical investigations on three species of ‘Dai’ ethno-medicinal plants were introduced, which included Ricinus communis, Rotala rotundifolia and Melia azedarach. In the last chapter, we summarize the limonoids from Meliaceae on their chemistry and biological activities, and 890 compounds in 551 references were cited. Based on column chromatography and LH-20 separation means and spectra analysis, seventy-six compounds were isolated from the above four species of ethno-medicinal plants, which included fourteen new ones. Chapter 1 Chemical constituents from Incarvillea arguta The extracts of the whole plants of Incarvillea arguta (Bignoniaceae), which was called “Liweila”, “Wabuyou” and “Caotianguan”, were mainly used to treat hepatitis, pharyngitis (by decoction drinking) and rheumatism (by pasting on the lesion) by the local ‘Yi’ people in Yunnan and Sichuan Province, P. R. China. From the AcOEt extractive layer of the MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of the plants, we isolated nineteen compounds including one new spirovetivane-type sesquiterpenoid (1), which showed strong in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against Cox-1 and Cox-2 and negative effects against 5-Lox. Chapter 2 Chemical constituents from Ricinus communis Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), which was called ‘mahongliang’ by the local ‘Dai’ people in Yunnan province, P. R. China, was mainly used for the treatment of icteric hepatitis, arthritis and constipation. Recent researches have revealed the antifertility and inhibitory activity to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase of the constituents from this plant. As to find out the chemical basis of the favorable therapeutic effects, we have chemically investigated the aerial parts of Ricinus communis L., which led to the isolation of twenty-two compounds including four new ones. Among them, compound (5) was a lupane-type triterpenoid, (13) was a tocopherol-related compound, (14) and (15) were casbane-type macrocyclic diterpenoids. Chapter 3 Chemical constituents from Rotala rotundifolia Rotala rotundifolia (Lythraceae), which was called “Yaluopeng” by the local ‘Dai’ people, has been used for treatment of carbuncle, furuncle, rheumatism and arthralgia in Yunnan province, China. Furthermore, recent investigation showed its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus diphtheriae. From the AcOEt extractive layer of the MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of Rotala rotundifolia, we isolated nine compounds, which include a new C13-isoprene derivative (1). Chapter 4 Chemical constituents from Melia azedarach Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) was famous for its antifeedant activity of the limonoids in it. The EtOH extracts of the bark of this plant showed anesthesia and inhibitory activities for Ascaris suis. Toosendanin, the main effective constituent, can cause respiratory failure in case of large dose. From the AcOEt extractive layer of the EtOH extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach, we isolated twenty-six compounds including eight new ones. Among them, compounds (5)-(8) and (15) were new triterpenoids and (20)-(22) were new sterols. Chapter 5 Meliaceous limonoids: chemistry and biological activities Limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids) are well known for their high degree of oxidation, multiform seco-styles, and their diverse biological activities. This review covered literature from 1961 to 2007, and 551 references 890 compounds were cited.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/410
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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四种民族药用植物化学成分的研究.谭钦刚[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
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