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题名: 柯街流域土地利用和气候变化的水文响应研究
作者: 马杏
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2005-05-19
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 许建初
关键词: 土地利用/覆被变化 ; 气候变化 ; 水文过程 ; SWAT模型 ; 山地流域 ; 流域管理
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 土地利用/覆被变化和气候变化对水文过程的影响备受关注。位于喜马拉雅山区东部柯街流域在过去的 40 多年中,土地利用发生了显著的变化,气温也有明显变暖的趋势,研究环境变化下山地流域水文过程的响应机制具有重要的科学和实践意义。本文在两个空间尺度上运用水文学原理和水文数理统计方法分析了流域内水文气象背景条件;运用RS&GIS及景观生态学方法分析流域土地利用背景条件;构建分布式水文模型(SWAT)模拟流域气候变化、土地利用/覆被变化对水文过程影响;利用水贫困、产洪及水退化评价指标体系评价流域水资源管理状况。研究结果表明: SWAT模型可运用于柯街流域;过去40多年流域水文循环过程主要受气候变化影响(影响率在80%以上),土地利用/覆被变化起调节作用;水文循环过程参数随降雨的增加而线性增加,随气温的增加而减少(蒸发除外);林地增加、草地和耕地减少导致流域地表径流和河道总径流减少,增加壤中流、基流和实际蒸发量;气候变化和土地利用/覆被变化的综合水文响应不是两者变化的简单线性叠加;草地覆被与林地覆被相比,草地覆被能有效增加地表径流和河道总径流量,减少实际蒸发量。流域内存在的主要水问题是水贫困问题,主要表现在缺乏取水途径和水资源管理机构。
英文摘要: The impacts of land use/cover change and climate change on hydrological processes have been consideration. Kejie watershed has been experiencing extensive reforestation in the past two decades, climate has shown an obvious increase in temperature. With global environmental change, study on hydrological responses of mountain watersheds has its both scientific and resource management significance. Two spatial scales, meso-watershed (Kejie) and micro-watershed (Xizhuang) were selected as study area. Hydrological and statistical methodology are applied to analyze current status of water resources; RS &GIS incorporating metrics of landscape ecology to assess land use/cover change; The SWAT model is used to simulate the hydrological response to land use/cover change and climate change. Finally, three indexes (WPI/FGI/WDI) are applied to assess water resource in Kejie watershed. The results show that SWAT model can be used in the watershed; The hydrological processes had been mainly influenced by climate change (more than 80%) in the past 4 decades; Hydrological parameters will increase linearly as the increase of rainfall, whereas will decrease with the rising of temperature except actual ET; The increase of forest at the expense of grassland and agriculture resulted in the decrease of surface water and stream flow, and the increase of lateral flow, base flow and actual ET; The combined effects of land use and climate changes on hydrological processes are not the simple addition of that of the single factor; Comparison of the simulation under forest cover and grassland cover illustrates that the surface water and stream flow have been increased and actual ET have been decreased significantly under grass cover; The main water-related issue in Kejie watershed is water poverty which is caused by lacking of access to water and infrastructure of treating and management of water.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/392
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
柯街流域土地利用和气候变化的水文响应研究.马杏[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2005.20-25
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