山蓼属系统学及中华山蓼繁殖生物学的研究
其他题名Systematics of Oxyria and reproduction biology of Oxyria sinensis Hemsl.
赵方
学位类型硕士
导师杨永平
2008-05-21
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词山蓼属 中华山蓼 肾叶山蓼 叶表皮微形态 分子系统学 繁殖生物学
摘要本论文包括两部分,第一部分是蓼科山蓼属植物的系统学研究,即通过叶表皮微形态学和分子标记方法比较了山蓼属中肾叶山蓼和中华山蓼之间的差异。第二部分是中华山蓼的繁殖生物学研究,即通过不同海拔居群之间植物繁殖分配的比较探讨中华山蓼的繁殖生物学特征。 第一部分:山蓼属植物的系统学研究 1.叶表皮微形态研究 在光学显微镜和扫描电镜下,对蓼科山蓼属(Oxyria)2种中华山蓼(O.sinensis Hemsl.)和肾叶山蓼(O.digyna (L.) Hill)的10个居群的叶表皮进行了观察。结果表明: (1)山蓼属植物叶表皮细胞通常为多边形,垂周壁平直至弓形,少有浅波状;气孔器类型以不规则型为主,少有不等细胞型。这些特征对山蓼属的系统学具有较大价值。 (2)在气孔外拱盖内缘和角质层蜡质形态特征方面,肾叶山蓼的气孔外拱盖内缘近平滑,角质层无明显条纹,呈浅波状隆起,膜状蜡质层,被蜡质颗粒;而中华山蓼的气孔外拱盖内缘啮齿-浅波状,角质层具条纹,呈波状隆起,细丝状蜡质层,被蜡质颗粒。两种间的差异显著,说明2种为自然类群,这些特征可以作为种间稳定的鉴别特征。 (3)气孔密度和角质层厚度受一定环境因子影响,但相关性不显著。 2.分子系统学 基于叶绿体trnL-F和matK序列对山蓼属及大黄属、酸模属4个种的植物进行了分子系统学研究,基于以上序列的单独分析及联合分析都表明:山蓼属植物作为单系类群得到了很高的靴带支持率,说明山蓼属在属级水平上的划分合理。分析结果还表明:山蓼属分为中华山蓼和肾叶山蓼两支,支持率也较高,说明中华山蓼和肾叶山蓼两种分类处理合理。 第二部分 中华山蓼的繁殖生物学研究 研究了具有克隆繁殖和雌雄异株特点的中华山蓼在不同海拔居群的繁殖分配。结果表明: 1) 雄株和雌株间的植株高度、地上部分总重量和营养器官重量的差异在不同海拔居群内不同,而雄株的花重量和繁殖分配在四个居群内显著高于雌株的花重量和繁殖分配,仅在海拔较低的居群与雌株的花重量和繁殖分配没有差异; 2) 雄株和雌株的植株高度、地上部分总重量和营养器官重量以及雌株的花重量和繁殖分配随海拔升高表现出降低的趋势,但雄花的重量和繁殖分配随海拔升高显著增加; 3) 雄株和雌株的繁殖分配受个体大小的制约(个体大小依赖性),但不支持“植物开始繁殖必须达到一定的大小(阈值)”这一结论。 根据中华山蓼的繁殖特点讨论了出现以上结果的原因并初步探讨了雌雄异株在中华山蓼中的进化机制,推测中华山蓼雌雄异株的进化可能是为了避免自交,但是,雌雄异株在中华山蓼中的进化动力还需要进一步研究。
其他摘要This paper included two parts. The first presented some primary results of leaf epidermis micro features and molecular systematic of the genus Oxyria Hill (Polygonaceae). The second part described the reproduction allocation of O. sinensis Hemsl. along altitude gradients. PartⅠ: Leaf epidermis micro feature and molecular systematics of Oxyria 1. Leaf epidermis The leaf epidermal characteristics of 10 populations of 2 Oxyria species were observed under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main conclusions included: 1) The leaf epidermal cells of Oxyria are usually polygonal with the anticlinal walls arched to straight, few sinuolate, and the stomatal apparatus were mainly anomocytic, few anisocytic. 2) According to the inner margin of outer stomatal rim and cutin membrane, the populations can be divided into two types: O. digyna had nearly smooth and cutin membrane with inconspicuous stripes and waxen granule. O. sinensis had sinuolate-erose and cutin membrane with undulated apophysis and granule. These characters are stable enough for diagnostic use. 3) No obvious variation of stomata density and the thickness of cutin membrane was detected among those population along environmental gradients. 2. Molecular systematics Molecular phylogeny of 4 species of the Oxyria and Rheum,Rumex was analyzed based on the chloroplast trnL-F and matK gene sequence data separately and collectively. The result revealed that Oxyria is monophyletic with support of high bootstrap value, and indicated division of Oxyria in the generic level was acceptable. The research findings indicated that Oxyria can be divided into 2 clades, one is O. sinensis, and another is O. digyna. Part Ⅱ: Reproduction biology of O. sinensis Hemal. We studied the reproductive allocation (RA, the ratio of flower biomass to total aboveground biomass) in five differently altitudinal populations of Oxyria sinensis, a dioecious perennial with clonal growth. The results showed that: 1) The differences between the male ramet and female ramet in the height of ramets, the total aboveground biomass and the biomass of vegetative organs varied in different populations, but the flower biomass and RA of male ramets were significantly higher than those of female ramets in four populations. The differences between the male ramets and female ramets in the flower biomass and RA of male ramets were not significant in the low altitudinal population. 2) With the increasing altitude, the height of ramets, the total aboveground biomass and the biomass of vegetative organs of both male ramet and female ramet, and the flower biomass and RA of female ramet, decreased gradually, but the flower biomass and RA of female ramet increased greatly. 3) The RA of both male ramets and female ramets decreased with the increasing biomass of vegetative organs, indicating the size-dependent reproduction in O. sinensis. However, our data did not supported the conclusion that there was an invariable minimum vegetative biomass for the reproduction in one certain plant species, which might result from the clonal growth in this species. We suggested that the higher RA of male ramets than that of female ramset in O. sinensis might respond to the reduced mating opportunities for pollen and ovule due to the decreased pollinator visitations and/or unpredictable rainfall in the alpine environment, and also made a preliminary discussion on the evolution of dioecy in this species. We speculated that the evolution of dioecy in Oxyria was for the sake of avoidance inbreeding. However, the power of the evolution was still unclear.
页数56
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/348
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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赵方. 山蓼属系统学及中华山蓼繁殖生物学的研究[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.
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