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题名: 中国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群的分类学研究
作者: 张嵘梅
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-05-26
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 税玉民
关键词: 秋海棠属 ; 扁果组 ; Laminariae类群 ; Palmata类群 ; 形态学 ; 生态学 ; 分类学 ; 中国
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 秋海棠属扁果组(Begonia sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC.),是一个亚洲分布组。本文通过广泛的文献资料收集、标本检查、野外考察、温室观察、叶表皮形态和胎座形态实验等一系列工作,对中国产秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群进行了分类学研究。主要研究结论如下: 1. 通过研究,对中国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群进行了补充描述。 2. 植物宏观形态研究表明:在组下水平上,中国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群的形态特征复杂多样,特别是在叶片形态方面,存在较高的多样性,具有诸多易混淆的近缘种。同时,即便是同一个种,其叶形也会随着该种的生长环境而发生变异,所以仅通过对各个种的宏观形态研究,难以把握种间界限,容易陷入将研究对象复杂化的境地。 3. 对中国秋海棠属7组52种2变种的叶表皮形态学研究结果表明:中国秋海棠属7个组的叶表皮特征较为一致,因此,叶表皮特征不能作为划分组的依据。然而,在组下水平上,对于扁果组来说,叶表皮特征与其宏观形态特征一样,体现出较高的多样性。叶表皮特征的组合,在种间具有明显的差异,特别是对于一些近缘种,具有重要的分类学意义。我们通过叶表皮形态的研究,发现叶表皮细胞形状、表皮细胞附属物、表皮细胞所含的草酸钙结晶、气孔器类型和形态等特征对于Laminariae类群的3对近缘种,即 (1)瓜叶秋海棠(B. cucurbitifolia)与四裂秋海棠(B. tetralobata);(2)奇异秋海棠(B. miranda)与倒鳞秋海棠(B. reflexisquamosa);(3)掌裂叶秋海棠(B. pedatifida)和红斑秋海棠(B. rubropunctata),Palmata类群1对近缘种,即长毛秋海棠(B. villifolia)与紫叶秋海棠(B. purpureofolia)的划分提供了叶表皮形态证据。叶表皮综合特征不仅对于扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群的近缘种具有重要的分类学意义,而且为扁果组其它种类,如大围山秋海棠(B. daweishanensis)和厚叶秋海棠(B. dryadis)、侧膜组,如(1)越南秋海棠(B. crystallina)和水晶秋海棠(B. bonii);(2)须苞秋海棠(B. fimbribracteata)和铁甲秋海棠(B. masoniana)、秋海棠组,如昌感秋海棠(B. cavaleriei)、盾叶秋海棠(B. peltatifolia)和少瓣秋海棠(B. wangii)等一些近缘种的划分,也提供了叶表皮形态证据。同时,在查阅大量文献资料和野外生境调查的基础上,我们认为秋海棠属植物叶表皮细胞中所具有的草酸钙结晶以及叶片下表皮中所具有的气孔簇都可能是该属植物重要的生态适应机制。 4. 在组级水平上,扁果组的繁殖器官具有较为一致的特征,即2室子房、每室胎座2裂片及中轴胎座,这是划分扁果组与其它组的最重要的特征。通过对中国秋海棠属扁果组部分种类进行徒手切片和石蜡切片实验观察和记录,得到以下结论:秋海棠属扁果组植物的子房横切面在组的水平上,形态特征较为稳定,一般为2室,中轴胎座,每室胎座2裂片,有的种类还可再裂。胎座形态在种间存在一定的差异。对于能否将胎座形态特征作为鉴定种的依据,由于我们实验涉及的种类和同一种类用于重复实验的子房数量较少,我们不能得出确切的答案,还需进一步研究才能作出结论。然而,对于胎座形态的研究,丰富了扁果组的系统资料,为今后开展进一步的研究提供一些线索。 5. 我们对中国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群的部分种类进行了花果期和地理分布的生态学观察。结果表明,研究对象均为雌雄异花同株(monoecious)的多年生草本。Laminariae类群的花期除瓜叶秋海棠较为特殊,为2月至3月外,主要集中于6月至8月,果期则主要集中于8月至10月。Palmata类群的花期也主要集中于6月至9月,果期主要集中于7月至10月。上述两大类群的雄花数目一般比雌花多,且雄花先开放,雌花才逐渐开放。幼嫩的或刚开放的雄花雄蕊呈黄绿色或浅黄绿色,成熟后雄蕊变为黄色,花粉囊开裂,散出花粉。而幼嫩的雌花柱头也呈黄绿色,待雌花成熟后,柱头逐渐变为鲜艳的黄色、金黄色,在接受花粉后,柱头逐渐干枯萎缩,柱头和果实均不容易脱落,而未授粉的雌花花梗逐渐变细并干萎,极易脱落。果实逐渐长大,成熟后,逐渐变干,种子沿开裂的腹缝线或背缝线散出。以上结果表明两大类群的生态习性和物候期是较为接近的。在对花期和地理分布进行分析后,我们发现花期和海拔的共同作用,可能是两大类群的具有较高的多样性的原因之一。 6. 在查阅文献资料和整理标本,进行野外考察和温室观察,并结合叶表皮特征和胎座特征观察实验的基础上,我们对秋海棠属扁果组进行了研究,确认我国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群有13种和Palmata类群有12种10变种,澄清了一些种类的分类学问题,给出了各个种的分种检索表,对每个种的形态特征、分布进行了详细的描述,并引证了查阅过的标本。 (1)将中国秋海棠属扁果组划分为ser. Laminariae R. M. Zhang和ser. Palmata R. M. Zhang。 (2)将奇异秋海棠(B. miranda Irmsch.)从秋海棠组(sect. Diploclinium (Wight) A. DC.)(谷粹芝,1999)移入扁果组(sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC.)。 (3)将倒鳞秋海棠(B. reflexisquamosa C. Y. Wu)作为独立的种处理,而非奇异秋海棠(B. miranda Irmsch.)的异名。 (4)将紫叶秋海棠B. purpureofolia S. H. Huang et Y. M. Shui作为长毛秋海棠B. villifolia Irmsch.的变种,处理为B. villifolia var. purpureofolia(S. H. Huang et Y. M. Shui)R. M. Zhang。 (5)由于没有见到标本或活体植物,或是所查阅标本太少,将B. flaviflora var. flaviflora Hara,B. flaviflora var. gamblei J. Golding et C. Kareg.,B. flaviflora var. vivida J. Golding et C. Kareg.,B. palmata var. difformis J. Golding et C. Kareg.,B. palmata var. crassisetulosa J. Golding et C. Kareg.作为存疑种。
英文摘要: Begonia section Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC. distribute only in Asia. Based on literature collection, specimens checking, field work, greenhouse investigation and previous research work, the taxonomy on group laminariae and group Palmata of Begonia section Platycentrum from China were studied and the main results are showed as follows. 1. The macromorphology of all species of these two groups in Begonia sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC from China were supplemently discribed and summarized. 2. Macromorphological observation showed high diversity exist in the morphological characters, especialy the shape of leaves of these two groups, which give birth to the presence of many easily confused allies. Even in a same species, the macromorphology of leaves show some difference with the change of habitual environment. Therefore, it’s hardly to define the boundary of species by only based on studies of single characters. 3. Leaf epidermal micromorphorlogy characters of 52 species and two varieties, representing seven sections of Begonia Linn. (Begoniaceaea) from China, were examined under light microscopy (LM). The high similarity of leaf epidermal micromorphology in the seven studied section determines that these characters are hard to be used in the distinguishing of sections. However, while limited in section Platycentrum, high diversity exist in these characters. The combination of them show obvious differentiation, providing their importance to define different allies in this section. With careful comparing, we found that the shapes of epidermal cells, the patterns of anticlinal wall, the types of ornament of epidermal cells, the types of calcium oxalate crystall and the types of stomatal apparatus have their significance on the distinguishing of eight allies in Begonia sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC., including group laminariae: (1) B. cucurbitifolia and B. tetralobata; (2) B. miranda and B. reflexisquamosa; (3) B. pedatifida and B. rubropunctata; group Palmata: (4) B. villifolia and B. purpureofolia. Meanwhile, the multiple leaf epidermal characters also provided useful information for identification among other allies in sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC. (B. daweishanensis and B. dryadis) and in other sections of Begonia from China, such as in B. sect. Coelocentrum [(1) B. crystallina and B. bonii; (2) B. fimbribracteata and B. masoniana] and B. sect. Diploclinium (Wight) A. DC. (B. cavaleriei, B. peltatifolia and B. wangii. In addition, calcium oxalate crystal and stomatal clusters were treated as possible important mechanism for ecoloical adaptation in Begonia Linn. based on literatures studies and field investigation. 4. The observation of progenitive organs found that great consistency in the character of these organs in species of this section , making them being siginificant futures to separate this section from others. These futures: two locules, placentation axillary and two placental branches per locule always keep steady, or sometimes the branches would divide once again in some species. Although the morphologies of locules were variable at species level, but it’s unclear if this future can be used in species identification for our sample number is still poor. Even though, it’s still useful to put attention to the morphologies of locules to enrich the information for the systematic studies of this section, and more such work should be conducted to get a conclusion if these futures are informative for the taxonomy of section Platycentrum. 5. The ecological characters of some species in group laminariae and group Palmata in their flowering period and fruiting period were also observed. All studied objects are perennial and monoecious. Except for B. cucurbitifolia, these two group show high similarity in their ecology of flowering and fruiting. Species in group laminariae bloom mainly from June to December and fructify from August to March in the next year, while the ones in group Palmata respectively from June to December and from July to December. Generally, male flowers is predominant than female flowers in magnitude, and usually bloom earlier than the female flower. While young, stamens and stigma are usually yellow green or yellowish green, but stamens change to yellow and stigma to fresh yellow golden yellow in mature. The stigma with pollination become atrophic and the capsules are hard to fall off while the one without tend to fall off easily. With the growth, maturation and drying of capsules, seeds release from the dry capsule from cracked abdominal suture or back suture. All of these indicate similarity between group laminariae and group Palmata in habit and Phenological characters. Based on studies of habit and Phenology of group laminariae and group Palmata, it is possible that the combination of flowering periods and alttitute is one of reasons for high diversity in Begonia sect. Platycentrum group laminariae and group Palmata. 6. Based on the literatures, field work , greehouse investigation, examination of the specimens in GXMI, HAST, IBK, IBSC, KUN, PE, YUKU, and leaf epidermal micromorphology study, group laminariae and group Palmata in Begonia sect. Platycentrum were revised. 25 species and 10 varieties are recognized from China. Morphological characters and distribution trait of all these species and varieties are described and a key for the identification of them is given. (1) Begonia sect. Platycentrum should be divided into two series: ser. Laminariae R. M. Zhang and ser. Palmata R. M. Zhang. (2) Begonia miranda Irmsch. should not be included in Begonia sect. Diploclinium (Wight) A. DC. but in Begonia sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A. DC. (Ku et al., 1999). (3) Begonia reflexisquamosa should be a distinct species, not the synonym of Begonia miranda Irmsch.(Huang et Shui, 2006) (4) Begonia purpureofolia S. H. Huang et Y. M. Shui should be treated as Begonia villifolia var. purpureofolia(S. H. Huang et Y. M. Shui)R. M. Zhang. (5) The statuses of five names are uncertain.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/346
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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中国秋海棠属扁果组Laminariae类群和Palmata类群的分类学研究.张嵘梅[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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