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题名: 紫花含笑、灰岩含笑及其杂种F1代的形态、细胞学特征与花粉生活力的比较研究
作者: 吉利
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-05-29
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 孙卫邦
关键词: 紫花含笑 ; 灰岩含笑 ; 杂种F1代 ; 开花生物学 ; 花粉活力
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 含笑属(Michelia L.)是木兰科中的第二大属,约50种。我国有含笑属植物约41种,其中云南拥有中国60%以上的种类。紫花含笑(M. crassipes)和灰岩含笑(M. calcicola)都是含笑属中具有较高观赏价值的园林植物。为了探究含笑属杂交育种的基础生物学问题和遗传规律,为该属植物观赏新品种的定向培育提供指导,本文对紫花含笑、灰岩含笑及其杂种F1代的形态学、细胞学、开花生物学和花粉生活力进行了研究。 1.形态学 比较研究表明,杂种F1代在株型、花器官形态及结构、花色、花粉形态、叶形态、叶表皮微形态及叶结构等方面,多数性状表现为父母本中间类型,少数表现出“超亲性状”,如:雌蕊数目等。杂种F1代的雄蕊群颜色表现为母系遗传或显性遗传,花粉近极面突出的脊可能为质量遗传,其它形态性状都表现为连续的数量遗传。 观察发现,57.7%的杂种F1代气孔密度都高于亲本,杂种F1代的耐寒性减弱。极度矮化型植株(尚未开花),其叶片气孔密度小,可以通过进一步育种改良,获得矮化型的盆栽含笑新品种。 2. 开花生物学特性及花粉育性 杂种F1代植株开花量有明显的大小年现象;单株间的开花量差异明显。极度矮化型植株均未开花;雌蕊先于雄蕊成熟。单花花期在年份间也存在差异并随开花时的环境温度和湿度不同而变化。 杂种F1代大部分植株的新鲜花粉在蔗糖浓度为100 g/L、150 g/L的条件下萌发率较高,且差异不明显,萌发率在8 h后趋于稳定。-20 ℃贮藏了一年的花粉对蔗糖浓度的要求要高于新鲜花粉。因此在选择最佳的萌发条件的时候,不应只选用新鲜的花粉做为实验材料,更应该通过贮藏花粉进行选择。花粉萌发的最适温度为25 ℃,温度升高抑制花粉管伸长,并导致花粉管顶端破裂。 紫花含笑和灰岩含笑新鲜花粉萌发率均可达90%以上,而杂种F1代花粉活力均低于亲本,其花粉萌发率从38%到79%不等,平均为57.7%。杂种F1代个体间及其亲本间的花粉萌发率均表现出极其显著的差异。 3. 细胞学观察 对紫花含笑、灰岩含笑及其杂种F1代(正常的杂种F1代)的染色体数目观察表明,其染色体均为38条(2n=38)。杂种F1代未发现多倍体和非整倍体,染色体数目稳定。 本研究为探讨含笑属杂交育种中的基础生物学问题和遗传规律积累科学资料。紫花含笑与灰岩含笑的杂种F1代单株间在形态性状和开花习性上表现出明显的差异,为从杂种F1代中通过单株选择和营养繁殖获得观赏新品种提供了依据。观察到的正常的杂种F1代染色体数目稳定,未见多倍体和非整倍体,花粉可育较高,说明为从这些F1单株中进行进一步的杂交改良,实现新品种的培育是可能的。杂种F1代极度矮化型单株的细胞遗传学特征及育种价值的需要深入研究。
英文摘要: There are some 50 species in genus Michelia L. in the world. China has about 41 species in the genus, and Yunnan province occupies over 60% of the China’s total. Both species of M. crassipes and M. calcicola are valuable ornamentals. In order to probe into the biological traits and inheritance in cross-breeding of genus Michelia and to direct the breedings of new Michelia cultivars in the future, the morphology (plant shape, leaf shape, flower color and conformation, pollen micromorphology, leaf anatomy and epidermal micromorphology), cytology and pollen vitality of M. crassipes, M. calcicola (♂) and their F1 hybrids were comparatively studied. 1. Morphology The F1 hybrids varied from each other in plant shape, leaf shape, flower color and conformation, pollen morphology, leaf anatomy and epidermal micromorphology. The phenotype of the F1 hybrids showed continuous variation, and inherited the characters of both parents. Most of individual plants had the characters between the parents, and a few of them beyond the parents. The androecium color showed matrilinear inheritance or dominant inheritance. The subpolar side of pollen with a bulge in the middle may be qualitative inheritance. Besides the two characters, all the other characters showed quantitative inheritance. Some 57.7% of the F1 hybrids had a higher stoma density than the parents. This character might be related to the F1 hybrids’ week cold-resistance as we observed in the field. The dwarf hybrids individuals had low stoma density, and they might have stronger cold-resistance than that of the normal ones. It’s expected that the dwarf ornamental cultivars of Michelia hybrids for pots can be bred. 2. Anthesis biology and pollen vitality The amount of flowers on the F1 hybrids individuals was very variable from each other, and its amount of flowers is alternative between years. The dwarf hybrids were not yet abloom. The flowers of parents and the F1 hybrids were all protogyny to avoid self-fertilization. Duration of single flower blooming can be affected by the environmental temperature, and the longest ones can last 14 days and the shortest ones only last only 4-5 days. Most of the F1 hybrids’ fresh pollen could well germinate in the sucrose concentration of 100g/L and 150 g/L. The germination percentage was stable after 8 hours. Pollen with -20 ℃ condition for one year have very different germination percentage in 100 g/L、150 g/L sucrose concentration. So storage pollens should be chosen for the optimum sucrose concentration, but not the fresh ones. Temperature of 25 ℃ was optimum for pollen germination and the higher temperature could prevent the tube elongation and induce the top of the tube burst. M. crassipes and M. calcicola had higher pollen germination percentage of more than 90%. But pollen of the F1 hybrids were lower vigorous than their parents, and the germination percent varied from 38% to 79%, with the average of 57.7%. The difference of pollen germination percent among the F1 hybrids individuals and between the F1 hybrids and the parents were significant. 3. Cytology The chromosome numbers of M. crassipes, M. calcicola and the tested F1 hybrids (normal ones) all are 38 (2n=2x=38), and the polyploidy and aneuploid were not found in the normal F1 hybrids. In conclusion, the results would be the valuable data for further understanding the biology and heredity in cross-breedng of genus Michelia. The significant difference of morphologis and anthesis biology among the F1 hybrids provides the scientifical basis for the new cultivar selection through the successfully vegetative propagation of centain individual plants. As stated above, the normal F1 hybrids had a stable chromosome number of 38 (2n=38); polyploidy and aneuploid did not exist, and most of the pollens were fertile and vigorous. Thus, it has a great possibility for new cultivar breeding through crosses among the F1 hybrids individuals. The cytological habits of the extremely dwarf F1 hybrids and its value for further breeding need to be studied in detail.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/340
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
紫花含笑、灰岩含笑及其杂种F1代的形态、细胞学特征与花粉生活力的比较研究.吉利[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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