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题名: 国产石蝴蝶属植物的细胞学、繁殖生物学和花粉形态的研究
作者: 季慧
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-05-12
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 管开云
关键词: 苦苣苔科 ; 石蝴蝶属 ; 细胞学 ; 繁殖生物学 ; 花粉形态
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 石蝴蝶属(Petrocosmea Oliv.)是苦苣苔科(Gesneriaceae)多年生草本植物。目前,国内外对石蝴蝶属植物的研究还十分匮乏。本文在对几种国产石蝴蝶属植物的野生资源状况进行调查的基础上,对部分石蝴蝶属和苦苣苔科其它属的植物进行了引种,开展了细胞学、繁殖生物学和花粉形态等方面的初步研究。主要研究结果如下: 1、资源调查和引种栽培 云南拥有丰富的石蝴蝶属植物资源。石蝴蝶多生长在石灰岩山地的缝隙中,环境阴湿,多伴生有苔藓和蕨类以及低矮的草本和灌木。也有一些种类生长的环境较为干旱。该属植物分布狭域性极强,野外居群数量较少,其生境容易遭受人为干扰和破坏。石蝴蝶在温室内不结实,繁殖只能靠无性繁殖,不利于基因交流,难以产生更适应环境的后代。 2、开花生物学和繁育系统的初步研究 对2种云南特有石蝴蝶属植物:丝毛石蝴蝶和小石蝴蝶的开花生物学特性和繁育系统进行了初步研究,包括花部形态特征的观察、花粉活力检测、柱头可授性检测、人工授粉、杂交指数的估算等。温室里栽培的丝毛石蝴蝶和小石蝴蝶的盛花期为7~10月份。丝毛石蝴蝶的花粉活力在散粉后第6天达到最高值,柱头在开花后第6天具有可授性;小石蝴蝶的花粉活力在散粉后第5天达到最高值,柱头在开花后第9天和第10天具有可授性,之后失去可授性,直至花凋谢后又再次具有可授性。按照Dafni(1992)的标准,估算2种石蝴蝶的OCI的指数均等于4。繁育系统为部分自交亲和,异交需要传粉者。人工授粉不结实。 3、繁殖生物学研究 1)扦插试验 利用石蝴蝶属12种植物的叶片进行扦插繁殖试验,在排除病虫害干扰的情况下,扦插材料的生根率接近100%。秋冬季节扦插的材料不易遭受病虫害的侵扰,但是材料生根速度较慢。 2)组织培养繁殖 对云南特有分布的2种石蝴蝶属植物,即丝毛石蝴蝶和蓝石蝴蝶进行了组织培养试验研究。结果表明,利用叶片作外植体,丝毛石蝴蝶的最佳消毒方式是70%酒精10s+0.1%HgCl25min;蓝石蝴蝶的最佳消毒方式是70%酒精10s+0.1%HgCl24min。2种植物的再生方式为器官发生型。不定芽的诱导过程非常缓慢,推测存在制约不定芽受诱导的因子。 4、细胞学研究 对12种石蝴蝶属植物的染色体数目进行了观察,其中7种的染色体数目为首次报道。实验结果表明,12种石蝴蝶的染色体数目均为2n=34,且全部属于小型染色体,部分伴有随体。分属3个不同组的12种石蝴蝶属植物的染色体数目不仅高度一致,染色体大小也相差甚微。 5、花粉形态研究 为比较石蝴蝶属与其他属之间的花粉形态,对苦苣苔科23属38种(其中石蝴蝶属14种)植物的花粉进行了电镜扫描观察。结果表明,苦苣苔科植物花粉的变异主要在于外壁结构和外壁纹饰上,花粉沟的形态也有一定的变异。网状纹饰是苦苣苔科植物花粉外壁最常见的纹饰。另外,研究发现,采自不同居群的同一个种的花粉外壁纹饰会有所差异。在石蝴蝶属中,花粉萌发孔类型、外壁、纹饰及大小在种间均无显著差异,花粉形态特征说明了石蝴蝶属是一较自然的类群。
英文摘要: Petrocosmea (Oliv.) belongs to the family Gesneriaceae. Up to now, litreautre and researches related to Petrocosmea are limited both from home and abroad. The thesis includes investigation and introduction of the genus Petrocosmea from the wild especially from southwesten China. Preliminary studies on cytology, reproductive biology and pollen morphology of the genus Petrocosmea and some species from other genera were conducted. The main progresses are briefly summarized as follows: 1. Resource investigation,introduction and cultivation The genus Petrocosmea mainly distributes in Yunnan, China and most of the species grow in the crevices of cliffs. Most plants in the genus prefer shady and humid habitat, where mosses,ferns and shrubs are commonly found. Based on growth observation of plants introduced from the wild, most species of Petrocosmea are growing well even in infertile soil and crevice. However, species from the genus Petrocosmea are usually obeserved growing in a very small area in the wild. It is obvious that human activities can have a huge negative impact on the plants’ habitat. It is suggested that effective conservation action should be taken. 2. Preliminary studies on breeing system Researches of breeding system on two endemic species of Petrocosmea to Yunnan were conducted. The studies including floral morphology, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, hand pollination and out-crossing index. P. sericea and P. minor bloom in the period between July and October when cultivated in the green house. On the 6th day after the anther of P. sericea crazed, the highest percentage of pollen viability was observed. On the 6th day after full blossom, the stigma of P. sericea showed receptivity. On the 5th day after the anther of P. minor crazed, the highest percentage of pollen viability was noticed. On 9 to 10 days after full blossom, the stigma of P. minor showed receptivity. Afterwards, the stigma P. minor became non-receptive until the flower was withered. According to Dafni(1992), the out-crossing index of the two species is 4, which means they are partially self-compatile and need pollinators sometimes. No fruit was produced after hand pollination. 3. Reproductive biology (1) Cutting propagation A result of nearly 100% rooting rate of cutting propagation showed in 12 species of Petrocosmea. In winter, cuttings were less affected by diseases but had a relatively low rooting speed. (2) Tissue culture Tissue culture was conducted on two endemic species of Petrocosmea to Yunnan. The results indicated that the most effective disinfection method for P. sericea was 70% ethanol 10s+0.1%HgCl25min; P. coerulea 70% ethanol 10s+0.1%HgCl24min. The progress of inducing adventitious buds were extremely slow, giving a hint to us that there probably be some inhibit factors. 4. Cytological studies The chromosome numbers of twelve species of the genus Petrocosmea Oliver from China are reported, of which seven are reported for the first time. The results are highly consistent within Petrocosmea, and the chromosome numbers of all the species observed here are 2n=34. The chromosomes of the twelve species are relatively small in size. Satellites are observed from time to time. 5. Pollen morphological studies Pollen of 38 species out of 23 genera was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Compared with other genus, there was little difference between species relating to aperture types, exinetypes and grain size, which indicating that Petrocosmea is a naturally defined genus. The results of pollen morphological studies showed that reticulate was the most commonplace exine sculpture patterns among Gesneriaceae, as well as perforate and foveolate. The main differences were observed through exine sculpture patterns and coluprate. Besides, the same species from different population had different exine sculpture patterns.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/336
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
国产石蝴蝶属植物的细胞学、繁殖生物学和花粉形态的研究.季慧[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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