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题名: 氮或磷对两种角蒿属植物光合作用和生长的影响
作者: 雷鸣
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-05-28
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 李树云
关键词: 红波罗花 ; 大花鸡肉参 ; 氮素 ; 磷素 ; 光合作用 ; 叶绿素荧光 ; 生长
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 以三年生红波罗花(Incarvillea delavayi)和块根鲜重在2.0-3.0g之间的大花鸡肉参(I.mairei.var.gradiflora)为研究材料,研究了不同氮磷处理下植株的叶片性状、气体交换、叶绿素荧光以及生长参数。其主要目的在于初步判断氮磷对这两种角蒿属植物光合作用和生长的影响,揭示其机制,并从光合生理角度为其引种驯化以及规模化栽培提供一定的理论依据。研究发现: 1、氮素对红波罗花光合作用和生长的影响 ①氮水平发生改变,红波罗花的叶片性状均随之发生改变:即施氮量增加,叶氮含量(N)、叶绿素含量(Chl)增加,比叶面积(SLA)下降;与此同时,叶氮在光合组分中的总分配量(Np)以及在各光合组分中的分配量(PR、PB和PL)均随之增加。 ②最大羧化速率(Vcmax)、最大电子传递速率(Jmax)和最大光合速率(Amax)也随外界氮浓度的增加而增加。另外,最大电子传递速率与最大羧化速率的比值(Jmax:Vcmax)在各处理间也有显著性差异。 ③不施氮植株叶片的PSII最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)为0.722,明显低于施氮处理。施氮量增加,红波罗花开放的PSII反应中心的激发能捕获效率(Fv´/Fm´)、光化学猝灭系数(qP)和光系统II(PSII)的实际量子效率(ΦPSII)提高,非光化学猝灭系数(qN)降低。 ④红波罗花的相对生长速率(RGR)随施氮量的增加而增加,在施氮量为0.4g/Kg土时最大。施氮量对红波罗花的根冠比无显著性影响。 综上,氮素能够通过改变红波罗花的叶片性状、氮在各光合组分中的分配以及PSII的活性,明显增强红波罗花的光合能力,促进其生长。据本研究结果,三年生红波罗花生长所需的最适氮量约为220-230mg/Kg。 2、磷素对大花鸡肉参光合作用和生长的影响 ①大花鸡肉参的叶磷含量(P)随营养液中磷浓度的增加而增加。单位面积叶绿素含量(Chl)、叶绿素a(Chla)、叶绿素b(Chlb)、叶绿素a与叶绿素b的比值(Chla/Chlb)以及SLA在各处理间变化不大。 ②在不同磷水平下,大花鸡肉参的Amax和Jmax具有显著性变化,其他光合参数,如Vcmax和磷酸丙糖利用率(TPU)虽然也随外界磷供应量的增加呈现增加的趋势,但各处理间的差异均未达到显著性水平。表观量子效率(AQE)在各处理间变化不大。 ③不同磷处理下,大花鸡肉参的Fv/Fm变化不大,均在正常范围0.80-0.85内。随施磷量的增加,Fv´/Fm´、qP和ΦPSII都有所增加,而qN则随之降低。 ④大花鸡肉参的RGR和根冠比在各处理间均没有显著性差异。 综上,磷素能够提高大花鸡肉参的电子传递速率和PSII的活性,增强植株的光合能力,但是磷素对大花鸡肉参的碳分配和RGR几乎无影响。因此,在大花鸡肉参块根仍能满足其自身需要时,只需施加少量磷肥即可使其正常良好的生长。
英文摘要: The leaf traits, gas-exchange response curves, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth parameters were examined in three-year old Incarvillea delavayi grown at four nitrogen concentrations, and in I. mairei var. grandiflora with root tuber weighting from 2.0 to 3.0 grams grown at three phosphorus concentrations. The main aims were to judge if nitrogen and phosphorus had a significant effect on each Incarvillea species respectively, and to find out the mechanisms. Through this work, it hopes to provide theoretical advice for their domestication and planting from the photosynthetic physiological point of view. The results showed that: 1、 Effects of nitrogen on photosynthesis and growth of I. delavayi ①As nitrogen supply increased, the leaf nitrogen content (N) , chlorophyll content (Chl), fraction of leaf nitrogen allocated to the photosynthetic components (PR、PB and PL) and nitrogen content in photosynthetic componets (Np) increased correspondingly, while the specific leaf area (SLA) decresesed. ②The maximum net CO2 assimilation rate at ambient CO2 concentration (Amax), the maximum rate of potential electron transport (Jmax), and the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) significantly increased with nitrogen. And the ratio of Jmax to Vcmax had significant differences under different nitrogen levels. ③The maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in the plants under 0g/Kg nitrogen application condition was much lower than those of the others. And with the increasing of nitrogen supply, the quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII), the efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers (Fv´/Fm´), and the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) increased, yet non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) decreased. ④The relative growth rate (RGR) of the whole plant was different between the treatments, but the ratio of roots to shoots was not. In conclusion, nitrogen could improve the photosynthetic capacity of I. delavayi by altering the leaf structures, nitrogen partitioning and photosystem II’s (PSII) activity, as a result, the plants indicated a higher speed of growth. And according to the results, the optimum amount of nitrogen needed by three-year old I. delavayi was about 220-230mg/Kg. 2、Effects of phosphorus on photosynthesis and growth of I. mairei var. gradiflora ①With the phosphorus supply increasing, the leaf phosphorus content of I. mairei var. gradiflora increased substantially, whereas SLA, Chla, Chlb, Chla/Chlb and the total chlorophyll content changed little. ②Amax and Jmax were positively affected by phosphorus, while the other photosynthetic parameters, such as AQE, Vcmax and TPU, were not significantly affected by phosphorus. ③Among all the treatments, Fv/Fm of I. mairei var. gradiflora changed little, all lying between 0.80-0.85. And with the increase of phosphorus supply, ΦPSII, Fv´/Fm´, and qP increased, while qN decreased. ④In spite of the different phosphorus concentration, RGR and the ration of roots to shoots of I. mairei var. grandiflora did not differ between the treatments. In a word, phosphorus could improve the photosynthesis of I. mairei var. gradiflora by enhancing PSII’s activity, but it had no important effects on its RGR. Consequently, the conclusion was that I. mairei var. gradiflora only needed small amount of phosphorus for its growth.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/330
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
氮或磷对两种角蒿属植物光合作用和生长的影响.雷鸣[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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